Infographic Template Galleries

Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Evolution of Modern Day Sirenians Antioquia 15% Antioquia 15% 12 10 2 Classification The Elephant-Manatee Connection Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Sirenia Family: Trichechidae Family: Dugongidae Genus: Trichechus Genus: Dugong Genus: Hydrodamalis Species: Trichechus inunguis Species: Dugong dugon Species: Hydrodamalis gigas (EXTINCT) Trichechus senegalensis Trichechus manatus Sub-Species: Trichechus manatus latirostris Trichechus manatus manatus Steller's Sea Cow The order Sirenia today consists of primarilyfive species: three species of extant manatees(Amazonian, West African and West Indian), two living sub-species of the West Indian manatee (Florida and Antillean), one species of living Dugong and one extinct species, the Steller's Sea Cow. Sirenians are thought to have begun their evolutionary journey from a group of African ungulates (Conylarths) during the Paleocene Epoch over 56 million years ago. Historically, manatees were thought to have evolved from ceteceans. Fossil records,although scarce, along with DNA evidence prove the closest relatives to the Sirenians are the elephant, hyrax and aardvark. Together Sirenians, Proboscideans, Desmostylians(extinct) and Embrithopods (extinct) form the group Tethytheria. All members of Tethytheria are herbivorous mammals with unique adaptations in common. Tethytheria Condylarths Paleocene to late Eocene (65-38 million years ago) Proboscideans Desmostylians Sirenians Late Oligocene to Late Miocene (30-7 million years ago) Embrithopoda Late Paleocene (60 million years ago)-Present with the most diversification taking place between the Eocene and Oligocene (54 to 24 million years ago) Paleocene to Late Eocene (60-38 million years ago) Halitherinae- Oligocene to Late Miocene (38-5 million years ago) Dugong (Living) Pezosiren Early Eocene (54-48 million years ago) Steller's Sea Cow Prorastomus Protosiren Middle Eocene (48-33 million years ago) Middle Eocene (48-33 million years ago) Trichechidae (Living) Adaptations Throughout the Years ~ Enlarged Tail~ Reduced Pelvis Size~ Reduced Hind Limbs~ Ability to Eat Fully Submerged~ Renewal of Molars to Break Up Food Teeth move in a conveyerbelt like motion from back to front Manatee Elephant Nails, not claws Elephant Elephant Manatee Manatee Prehensile lips/trunks to help with graspingfood REFERENCES Anderson, P. K. (2002). Habitat, niche and evolution of Sirenian mating systems. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 9(1/2), 55-98.Arkive. (Photographer). (2014). Dugong [Web Photo]. Retrieved from, C. (Photographer). Elephant Foot [Web Photo]. Retrieved from, J., Merigeaud, S., & Tabuce, R. (2013). Homoplasy in the ear region of Tethytheria and the systematic position of Embrithopoda (Mammalia, Afrotheria). Geobios, 46, 357-370.Carnivora. (Photographer). (2011). Pezosiren [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from (Photographer). (2011). Elephant Jaw [Web Photo]. Retrieved from, D. P. (1982). Evolution of manatees: A speculative history. Journal of Paleontology, 56(3), 599-619.Domning DP (2001) The earliest known fully quadrupedal sirenian. Nature, 413, 625627Domning DP, Zalmout IS, Gingerich PD (2010) Sirenia. In Werdelin L, Sanders WJ, editors: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. University of California Press, Berkeley. 147160. Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Paleocene, eocene, oligocene, miocene. Retrieved from Marine Laboratory. (Photographer). (2002-2003). Manatee Lip [Web Photo]. Retrieved from (Photographer). (2014). Condylarth Skeleton [Web Graphic].Ozawa, T., Hayashi, S., & Mikhelson, V. M. (1996). Phylogenetic position of mammoth and Stellers sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 44, 406-413.Gombassa. (Photographer). (2005). Sireninan Distribution Map [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from, J. (Photographer). (2012). Manatee Foot [Web Photo]. Retrieved from Huffington Post. (Photographer). Manatee Jaw [Web Photo]. Retrieved from, K. (Photographer). (2014). Elephant Trunk [Print Photo].Simpson, G. G. (1945). The principles of classication and a classication of mammals. Bulletin American Museum Natural History, 85, 1350.Twisted Swifter. (Photographer). (2010). Elephant Skeleton [Web Photo]. Retrieved from Twisted Swifter. (2010). Elephant skeleton. Retrieved from Science. (Photographer). Order Sirenia: Manatees and Dugongs [Web Drawing]. Retrieved from, J., Domning, D. P., & Pyenson , N. D. (2012). Iterative evolution of sympatric seacow (Dugongidae, Sirenia) assemblages during the past ~26 million years. PLoSONE, 7(2), 1-8.When What How. (Photographer). (2012). Embrithopod Skeleton [Web Photo]. Retrieved from
Create Your Free Infographic!