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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Nature's Antidotes Quinine - "High in the Andes, between three thousand and nine thousand feet above sea level, there grows a tree whose bark contains an alkaloid molecule, without which the world would be a very different place today - "There are about forty species of this tree, all of which are members of the cinchona genius" - Bark from cinchona trees has anti-malarial properties, originally discovered by early European explorers whose fevers disappeared after drinking water from ponds surrounded by these trees - Many nations where this bark grew began to export large amounts and generate huge profits. They even banned taking the cinchona plants/seeds out of the country in order to maintain a monopoly on the product Sickle Cell Anemia - Nature has its own defense mechanism against malaria Quinine Molecule Vs. Synthesized Molecule - For carriers of the sickle cell trait who live in malarial areas, the disease offers a valuable compensation: a significant degree of immunity to the disease. - As many as 25% of of sub-Saharan Africans carry a genetic trait for sickle cell anemia - In sickle-cell anemia patients, approximately half of the red blood cells become rigid and take on a crescent or sickle shape. - Sickle cell causes pain, fatigue and delayed growth, due to a lack of healthy red blood cells. Yet, genetic mutations that cause it (recessive genes for the oxygen carrying hemoglobin protein) survived natural selection
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