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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 -1.5 cm- 6 cm long (size of a paper clip)-Endangered due to habitat loss-Colors vary due to frog species and are set warnings for predators that the frog is lethal-One of the most poisonous animals known to man-Secrete Bartrachotoxin (BTX) which is a very deadly steroid-150 micro grams of BTX can kill a 150lb man-Diet consists of spiders and small insects like ants and termites-Expected to live up to 10+ years at the most-Are not poisonous in captivity-Name derived from Amerindian tribe who used the species' secretions to poison their battle darts Cell communication :Toxins- Poison Arrow Frogs Frog Facts! double click to change this header text! Cell Communication: the signaling system between living cells to each other and receiving a cellular response. BTX Facts! -type of steroid-neurotoxin-affects the voltage across the membrane and causes damage to the peripheral nerve cells-binds to voltage-gated sodium channels on the cell membrane-No treatment or cure for BTX poisoning -also found in some insects-Signaling mechanism Cell Signaling Pathway Signal Mechanism: BTXLigand: AcetylcholineReceptor: Voltage-gated sodium channelsCellular Response: BTX binds with the pore of the voltage-gated sodium channel and keeps that channel from closing. Sodium ions move freely into the cell and cause it to become depolarized.Organismal Response: The nervous system relies on the polarization and the depolarization of the ion channels to send electric signals to muscles. The BTX causes the cell to remain completely depolarized and will not allow the nervous system to send signals to the muscles to relax which causes the organism to become paralyzed. The respiratory system is also effected by this and causes the organism to die. Signal Transduction Pathway Current Direction of Research -Currently no cure or treatment for BTX symptons-It has not been used yet for medical treatments- still determining the proximity of how much each frog secretes into a predator at a time- One frog and its initial poison quota can kill up to twelve humans or 2-3 elephants-scientists have found that BTX causes heart failure and numbness in human tissue-BTX is stabilized within its receptor by the electrostatic interaction of BTX's positively charged tertiary amine.-once BTX enters the organism's cell and begins the transduction pathway the sodium channel is irreversible Works Cited -Halรกcsy.Arvai.Adam Somlai-Fischer.Budapest,Hungary, San Francisco, District of Columbia.Feb. 2015.Web.www,national of Regents of the University of Wisconson System. html-Western Oregon University.Monmouth, Oregon.Web.www
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