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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The UNITED STATES? How Did The HOLOCAUST Affect How Did The HOLOCAUST Affect Populat on Change Refugees The US was not acting decisively and specifically with regard to victims of the Holocaust during WWII. US officials said that military victory would offerbetter chances of Jewish survival. On January 22,1944, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9417, which established a War Refugee Board (WRB) financed with emergency presidential funds. Its purpose was to take all measures "to rescue victims of enemy oppression in the imminant danger of death" and to provide relief and assistance consistent with the successful prosecution of the war. By the time the WRB was established, however, four-fifths of the Jews who were to be killed in the Holocaust were already dead. DP Camps Many survivors had little chance for immigration, forcing them to migrate to western European territories already liberated. They stayed in refugee centers and Displaced Persons (DP) Camps administered by the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, and the US, British, and French armies. For those still wanting to move further west, restrictions were limited, but not impossible. Fort Ontario Refugee Center at Oswego, New York, served as a haven for 983 refugees from the former Yugoslavia who had managed to reach Italy. These refugees, 918 of whom were Jewish, arrived at the center in august. In many camps, Jews and non- jews lived together, exposing the Jews to the harsh opinions and antisemitic beliefs. Some Jews were alsotreated harshly by US personnel. Eventually, Jews and non-jews were separated, and there was required equaltreatment towards refugees. Living conditions were also improved. By the end of the Holocaust in 1945, over 6 million jews had died; a little less than 4 million survived. Many of these survivors immigrated to the United States in search of a new start. From Germany and Austria alone, over 85 thousand jews immigrated to the US. It was difficult for Jews to immigrate to the US at first, because the US was in the throws of a great Depression, making the citizens on edge about new immigrants. Even with this difficulty, however, in 1941, 45% of all immigrants into the US were Jewish. InDecember of 1941, the immigration began to slow, just at the time the Nazis began to implement their "Final Solution", when they started mass murdering Jews. Despite the obstacles, more than 200,000 Jews found refuge in the US from 1933 to 1945 Jews avoided returning home because of the antisemitism that still lived in parts of Europe and the trauma they hadsuffered. In post-warPoland there wereprogroms, or anti-jewish riots. Why not return home? Why didn't the US bomb the Camps? It was suggested that the US should bomb the camps for quicker results. It was feared that it would strengthen German Propaganda if they killed prisoners, and they were worried for the death toll. It was suggested that if the US bombed Auschwitz-Birkenau, it might have killed some prisoners, but it would have slowed the killings, ultimately saving more lives. "The Final Solution" The term "extermination" was first used in the context of the Holocaust in July, 1942, when describing mass murders of jews in Poland and The Chelmno killing center. It was in The New York Times and even then, it was on page six. On December 17, the United States, Great Britain, and ten other Allied governments issued a declaration that explained the Nazi's intention of murdering the jews. It warned Nazi Germany that it would be held responsible for all crimes. Immigration Solutions In December, 1945, President Truman loosened the restrictions on immigration into the US of people displaced by the Holocaust. This resulted in over 40,000 refugees immigrating to the US, 28000 were jews. Congress activated 400,000 visas to be given to immigrants 80,000 went to jewish DPs.
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