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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Avian Influenza By: Katelyn Chism What is avian influenza? Avian influenza is simply a more formal name for the bird flu. It is influenza caused by viruses that are adapted to birds. There are more than 100 strains of the influenzavirus that have adapted to a specific host which cause this illness but the most commonand alarming avian influenza is H5N1. Many of the human contractions of the avian flu aredue to either handling dead birds that are infected or from coming in contact with infectedfluids. Companion birds, parrots and and pigeons are very unlikely to contract andinfect others with the disease. 85% of bird populations infected are chickens and farm birds. 15% are wild birds. What's the concern? Avian influenza has become a serious concern becausethe people that are infected with this disease are becomingseverely ill and dying in most cases. In the most recent cases,the patients had recently had exposure to live poultry or beenin contaminated environments, such as markets where live birds have been sold. This disease does not appear to transmiteasily between humans, however scientists are afraid that as the virus mutates,it will begin a pandemic among the human race. What places are affected? Avian influenza infections have been found in birds and humans in parts of Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East andnow even the U.S. Reflections Throughout this activity I learned alot about the bird flu that I didnt even know. I never knew the technical term for it was even avian influenza. In elementary school I remember hearing about it all the time. I was a child who had no clue what was going on other than the fact that it came from birds and I was terrified to eat chicken. I always thought that the bird flu was big in the U.S. when really, its killing hundreds in other countries.Then the talk just stopped and I thought for all these years that the problem had been solved but in reality it is still a major concern in other parts of the world. Doing this activity opened my eyes and enlightened me on something that i thought falsely on for so many years. What organizations are helping? There are a few non-governmental collaborating health organizations working alongside WHO and the CDC that are trying to help solve this issue:-World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)- UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)- Global Early Warning System for major animal diseases (GLEWS)- OIE/FAO Network of Expertise on Animal Influenza (OFFLU) Economic Impact Avian influenza has had serious economic impacts on thecountries that it has swept through. In many of the affected countries, farming is a livelihood. Many farms have been shutdown due to avian flu and there goes their money. Not to mention, the cost of health care for those infected and those who are tryingto keep from getting infected is very expensive. Countries are spending billions on research and vaccines trying to resolve the issue and its blowing their pockets. The economic impact of this global health issue is negative, especially for small farmers. Poultry, for them is a buffer against food insecurity and investment and economic hedge. Household flocks serve as reservoirs of family savings. All of their flock is being killed in effort to stop avian influenza. When people anticipate financial losses due to culling andthey aren't compensated for it, a lot of issues begin to rise. How does this global issue vary? Avian influenza varies across different countries and continents. Since 2003, there have been more than 400 cases reported from over a dozen countries in Asia, Africa,and Europe. China is one country that is struggling with battling the avian influenza. Just a few days ago on December 30th 2014 there were 6 cases of bird flu reported in China. On January 3rd 2015 a man died due to bird flu in Egypt. Bird flu has also been spotted in the U.S. On January 2nd 2015, it was found in Seattle,Washington in a backyard poultry flock. This global issuevaries because there are some countries and cultures that depend more on chicken and poultry as livestock than others.See charts below for a visual and better understanding on how avian influenza has evolved. Thesis Statement The origin of the avian influenza, how it affects the people/ places that it infects, who resolves the issue and how they do it. Lifetime Productivity and Life Expectancy Avian influenza has a 60% mortality rate. The main difference from this flu and the regular flu is that anyone who is infected with this diseases will more than likely be killed by it which is why it is such a concern. As of right now it is rare that humans can spread the bird flu to other humans but scientist are afraid that one day the virus will become more easy to transmit from one person to another. Unlike the regular flu, avian influenza claims the lives of almost everyone it infects. There is no vaccine for bird flu. And no country has yet to fully resolve the issue. Social Stigmas There are some social considerations suchas stigma and shame that play a key role in this global issue.There was a flu outbreak backin the early 2000's and the social stigma of public workers wearing masks to keep from spreading germs kept many people from doing so when they were ill. Lack of knowledge, public panic and discriminatory statutes against sick individuals also have an impact.These social stigmas could potentially cause distrust in health authorities, create barriers against seeking medicalattention reducing early detection, and it could lead topoverty and neglect. Strategies What is the government doing? There are a couple strategies that have been put in place to address this issue:- Reduce opportunities for human infection-Strengthen the early warning system-Contain/delay spread at the source-Reduce morbidity, mortality, and social disruption - Conduct research to guide response measures.Over 100 million poultry have been killed in order to stop the spread of the virus, markets and farms have beenshut down, careful measures to clean the poultry and properlyhandle it have been put in place. These strategies worked for atime but could need strengthening especially because there isno vaccine unlike other flu viruses. WHO and the CDC are following this global issue very closely.The CDC activated the Emergency Operation Center to support thespreading avian influenza situation in China. They also sent teamsto China to assist in the outbreak.The CDC is doing a list of other things such as distributing test kits that can detect the virus, conducting animal studies to learn more about the severity of the virus,conducting studies on blood samples to see if there is any immunityto the virus, etc. In response to the virus, WHO is also doing a number of similar things in collaboration with their partners. They are monitoring this virus closely and they are developingand adjusting the appropriate interventions wherever they may occur in the world. Global Health Issue Activity Health Science 2 Ms. Poole 2B
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