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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Question 3 Jefferson 3rd:Thomas Jefferson 73 vs. John Adams 65. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System. 1801 to 1809. Madison 4th:James Madison 122 vs. Charles C. Pinckney 47. This election was the first of only two instances in American history in which a new President would be selected but the incumbent Vice President wouldcontinue to serve. 1809 to 1817. Monroe 5th:James Monroe 228 / 231. Last presidential election in United States history in which a candidate ran effectively unopposed. 1817 to 1825. Quincy Adams 6th:John Quincy Adams 84 vs. William H. Crawford41 vs. Henry Clay 37 vs. Andrew Jackson 99. No candidate had received a majority of the Presidential Electoral votes, putting the decision in the hands of the House of Representatives. The House elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. It was widely believed that Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at the time,convinced Congress to elect Adams, who then made Clay his Secretary of State. 1825 to 1829. Jackson 7th:Andrew Jackson 178 vs. John Quincy Adams 83.With no other major candidates, Jackson and his chief ally MartinVan Buren consolidated their basesin the South and New York and easily defeated Adams. 1829 to 1837. From Jefferson to Jackson Jefferson: He attempted to put into action the principlesof his Democratic-Republican Party. In domestic affairs Jefferson tried to weaken Federalist influences, especially in the judiciary, and succeeded in limiting the size of government by reducing taxes and the national debt. In foreign affairs, the major developments were the acquisitionof the gigantic Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803, an embargo against trade with both Great Britain and France, and worsening relations with Britain as the United States tried to remain neutral in the midst of the Napoleonic Wars that engulfed Europe. Jefferson repealed many Federalist taxes including the tax that prompted the WhiskeyRebellion and also decreased the size of the military. Madison: The absence of a national bank made war with Britain very difficult to finance. Congress passed a bill chartering a second national bank but Madison vetoed it. Congress passed another bill to charter a second national bank and Madison signed the act, having learned the bank was needed from the war with Britain. He entered The United States into the War of 1812. Madison's final years began a period of peace and prosperity, which was calledthe Era of Good Feelings.The Federalist Party dissolved anddisappeared from politics. Madison approved a Hamiltonian national bank, an effective taxation system based on tariffs, a standing professional military, and the internal improvements. Monroe: Monroe largely ignored old party lines in making appointmentsto lower posts, which reduced political tensions and enabled the "Eraof Good Feelings", which lasted through his administration. Monroe's popularity was undiminished even when following difficult nationalist policies as the country's commitment to nationalism was starting to show serious fractures.The Missouri Compromise bill resolved the struggle, pairing Missouri as a slave state with Maine, a free state, and barring slavery north of latitude 36/30' N forever. Monroe vetoed the Cumberland Road Bill, which provided for yearly improvements to the road, because he believed it to be unconstitutional for the government to have such a large hand in what was essentially a civics bill deserving of attention on a state by state basis. Monroe sparked a constitutional controversy when, in 1817, he sent General Andrew Jackson to move against Spanish Florida to pursue hostile Seminole Indians and punish the Spanish for aiding them. The Monroe Doctrine was a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. Intervention. Jackson: In January 1835, Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U.S. history that has been accomplished. Jackson repeatedly called for the abolitionof the Electoral College by constitutional amendment. As President, Jackson worked to repeal the Second National Bank's federal charter. Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the "Nullification Crisis", or "secession crisis", of 1828 – 1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over tariffs.In response to South Carolina's nullification claim, Jackson vowed to send troops to South Carolina to enforce the laws. Jackson asked Congress to pass a "Force Bill" explicitly authorizing the use of military force to enforce a tariff. Perhaps the most controversial aspect of Jackson's presidency was his policy regarding Native Americans. Jackson was a leading advocate of a policy known as Indian removal. Jackson had been negotiating treaties and removal policies with Indian leaders for years before his election as president. Many tribes and portions of tribes had been removed to Arkansas Territory and further west of the Mississippi River without the suffering of what later became known as the Trail of Tears. Further, many white Americans advocated total extermination of the "savages" particularly those who had experienced frontier wars. Question 1 Quincy Adams: Adams proposed an elaborate program of internal improvements (roads, ports and canals), a national university, and federal support for the arts and sciences. He favored a high tariff to encourage the building of factories, and restricted land sales to slow the movement west. Some of his proposals were adopted, specifically the extension of the Cumberland Road into Ohio with surveysfor its continuation west to St. Louis; the beginning of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the construction of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and the Louisville and Portland Canal around the falls of the Ohio; the connection of the Great Lakes to the Ohio River system in Ohio and Indiana; and the enlargement and rebuilding of the Dismal Swamp Canal in North Carolina. Adams' generous policy toward Native Americans caused him trouble.By signing into law the Tariff of 1828, quite unpopular in parts of the south, he further antagonized followers of Jackson. Adamsis regarded as one of the greatest diplomats in American history, and during his tenure as Secretary of State, he was the chief designer of the Monroe Doctrine. Jefferson: The United States had to protect its own merchant vessels and was paying $80,000 to the Barbary States as a 'tribute' for protection against piracy. After Tripoli made new demands for an immediate sum of $225,000 and an annual payment of $25,000, President Jefferson refused and at that point decided it would be easier to fight the pirates than give into their continuing demands. As a result the pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States and the First Barbary War began. Jefferson and the young American navy forced Tunis and Algiers into breaking their alliance with Tripoli which ultimately moved it out of the war. Jefferson also ordered five separate naval bombardments of Tripoli, which restored peace in the Mediterranean for a while.Due to political attacks against Jefferson, in particular those by Alexander Hamilton and his supporters, he used the Alien and Sedition Acts to counter some of these political adversaries. Jefferson encouraged passage of the Embargo Act in 1807 to maintain American neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars, which was in accordance with France's Continental System against Britain. Jefferson hoped to avoid national humiliation on the one hand, and war on the other. In the event, he got both war and national humiliation; the economy of the entire Northeast suffered severely, Jefferson was vehemently denounced, and his party lost support. Instead of retreating, Jefferson sent federal agents to secretly track down smugglers and violators. Madison: After Jackson accused Madison of duplicity with Erskine, Madison had Jackson barred from the State Department and sent packing to Boston. The War of 1812 was nearing and Madison called on Congress to put the country "into an armor and an attitude demanded by the crisis," specifically recommending enlarging the army, preparing the militia, finishing the military academy, stockpiling munitions, and expanding the navy. Madison faced formidable obstacles: a divided cabinet, a factious party, a recalcitrant Congress, obstructionist governors, and incompetent generals, together with militia who refused to fight outside their states. Most serious was lack of unified popular support. There were serious threats of disunion from New England, which engaged in extensive smuggling with Canada and refused to provide financial support or soldiers. The Presidents before had reduced the military, closed the Bank of the U.S., and narrowed the tax system. They distrusted standing armies and banks, and the dismantling of the federalist taxation system meant they could not finance the quick hiring of mercenaries. By the time the war began, Madison's military force consisted mostly of poorly trained militia members. After Madison assumed the Presidency in 1809, he placed Wilkinson in charge of Terre aux Boeufs on the Louisiana coast to protect the U.S. from invasion. Wilkinson proved to be an incompetent general. Like Jefferson, Madison chose to retain Wilkinson for political reasons, as Wilkinson had influence as a Pennsylvania Republican. After Wilkinson's twobattle defeats by the British he relieved the officer from active military service. Question 2 Monroe: The Panic of 1819 caused a painful economic depression. The application for statehood in 1819 by the Missouri Territory as a slave state failed. An amended bill for gradually eliminating slavery in Missouri precipitated two years of bitter debate in Congress. The Missouri Compromise bill resolved the struggle, pairing Missouri as a slave state with Maine, a free state, and barring slavery north of latitude 36/30' N forever. The Missouri Compromise lasted until 1857, when it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States as part of the Dred Scott decision. Monroe sparked a constitutional controversy when, in 1817, he sent General Andrew Jackson to move against Spanish Florida to pursue hostile Seminole Indians and punish the Spanish for aiding them. News of Jackson's exploits ignited a congressional investigation of the 1st Seminole War.the House of Representatives voted down all resolutions that condemned Jackson in any way, thus implicitly endorsing Monroe's actions and leaving the issue surrounding the role of the executive with respect. Quincy Adams: As president, Adams faced steadfast hostility from the Jacksonians in Congress, which perhaps explained his relatively few substantive accomplishments while in the White House. He was attacked by the followers of Jackson, who accused him of being a partner to a "corrupt bargain" to obtain Clay's support in the election and then appoint him Secretary of State. The support for his proposals was mixed, mainly due to opposition from Jackson's followers. Critics, especially Jackson's supporters, argued that his plans exceeded federal authority according to the Constitution. One of the issues which divided the administration was protective tariffs, of which Henry Clay was a leading advocate. After Adams lost control of Congress in 1827, the situation became more complicated. Adams' generous policy toward Native Americans caused him trouble. Settlers on the frontier, who were constantly seeking to move westward, cried for a more expansionist policy. When the federal government tried to assert authority on behalf of the Cherokees, the governor of Georgia took up arms. Adams defended his domestic agenda as continuing Monroe's policies. Up for reelection in 1828, Adams was hurt by accusations of corruption and criticism of his unpopular domestic program, among other issues; he lost badly to Jackson, who captured most of the southern and western votes. Jackson: In January 1835, Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U.S. history that has been accomplished. However, this accomplishment was short lived. A severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused the national debt to increase to over $3.3 million by January 1, 1838 and it has not been paid in full since. By the end of his first four years, Jackson had dismissed nearly 20% of the Federal employees who were working at the start of his first term, replacing them with political appointees from his party. This resulted in the appointment of many functionaries who had no training or experience in the fields for which they were now responsible for administering. After