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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Fallacies of Argument Fallacies of Emotional Arguement 1. Scare tactics- can be used to stampede legitimate fears into panic or prejudice. 2. Either-or choices- can be well-intentioned strategies to get something accomplish. 3. Slippery slope- portrays today's tiny misstep as tomorrow's slide into disaster4. Sentimental appeals- use tender emotions excessively to distract readers from facts. 5. Bandwagon appeals- use people to follow the same path everyone else is taking. Fallacies of Ethical Appeal 1. False authority- occurs when writers offer themselves or other authorities as sufficient warrant for believing a clai2. Dogmatism- a fallacy of character that undermines the trust that must exist between those who make and listen to arguments. 3. Ad hominem arguments- attack the character of a person rather than the claims he or she makes. 4. Stack the deck- when they show only one side of the story- the one in their favor. Fallacies of Logical Argument 1. Hasty generalization- in an inference drawn from insufficient evidence. 2. Faulty causality- the faulty assumption that because one event or action follows another, the first causes the second. 3. Begging the question- assuming as true the very claim that's disputed- is a form of circular argument lent that goes nowhere. 4. Equivocations- half truths or arguments that gives lies an honest appearance- are usually based on tricks of language. 5. Non sequitur- is an argument whose claims, reasons, or warrants don't connect logically. 6. Straw man- a fallacy that attacks an argument that isn't really there, often a much weaker or more extreme one than the opponent is actually making. 7. Red herring: changes the subject abruptly to throw readers or listened off the trail. 8. Faulty analogies- inaccurate or inconsequential comparisons between objects or concepts. A pose a challenge to civil argument because they often seem reasonable and natural, especially when they appeal to people's self-interests. Emotional arguments can be powerful and suitable but some writers tend to make their readers heart race too frequently which can violate the good faith on which legitimate argument depends. Readers give their closest attention to authors who they respect but not all devices that writers use to gain the attention and confidence of readers are admirable. Fallacies are arguments that are flawed by their very nature or structure. Fallacies are classified according to their emotional, ethical, and logical appeal.
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