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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Enormous amounts of explosive munitions are used during modern wars. An estimated 23.1 million tons (21 million metric tons) of explosives were expended during World War II, 36 percent of that by United States forces, 42 percent by the Germans, and 22 percent by other combatants. "Nuclear winter" is a term given to what would happen to the earth's environment following a large-scale nuclear war. In effect, the entire planet would be plunged into a very bitter winter that would last months or years. The Effects of War: Mental, Physical, and Environmental Many injuries and casualtieshappened in various wars Total deaths in WWI were around15,436,261 to 18,407,800 Total Military deaths in WWII were a whopping 60,000,000 to 85,000,000 Among veterans, these costs of war are reflected in widespread posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd),alcohol abuse, divorce, and, all too often, suicide. Shell shock, also known as the 1000 yard stare, was a term coined to describe the reaction of some soldiers in World War I to the trauma of battle. It was a reaction to the intensity of the bombardment and fighting that produced a helplessness appearing variously as panic and being scared, or flight, an inability to reason, sleep, walk or talk. Hardy, who is a decorated veteran, served with the First Armored Division in Iraq. A few months into his tour of duty in 2004, the vehicle he was riding in was hit by a land mine near Tikrit, and thrown more than 10 feet into the air. Hardy survived the explosion and was sent to a combat hospital where he was treated for knee injuries. Two days later, he was back on patrol. Soon, however, he began to feel that something was not right. "I was always banging my head against obstacles," Hardy says. "My memory of what's around me wasn't keeping the information... I just didn't feel as smart." Eventually Hardy, who is the father of four small children, was diagnosed with a traumatic brain injury (TBI), a physical wound that is often invisible, caused by shockwaves associated with bomb explosions that tear brain cells apart. Some health professionals have identified traumatic brain injuries caused by improvised explosive devicesIEDsas signature injuries of the Iraq war. Among the most tragic of injuries were horrific shrapnel wounds to the face, inthousands of cases the entire face was torn off and the men were unable to see, hear, speak or drink. These injuries were so severe that returning soldiers were unrecognizable to their families., "War, environmental effects of." Environmental Encyclopedia. Gale, 2011. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 9 Feb. 2015.,, Freedman, Lawrence D. "The Long Walk: A Story of War and the Life That Follows." Foreign Affairs Mar.-Apr. 2013. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 9 Feb. 2015.,, "Introduction to Casualties of War: At Issue." Casualties of War. Ed. Susan Hunnicutt. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 9 Feb. 2015., Works Cited:
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