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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes Insipidus is characterized by polydipsia (really thirsty) and polyuria (a lot of diluted urine). Hypothalamus, Posterior Pituitary, PlacentaNOTE: Kidneys Major Organ involved MAJOR HORMONE INVOLVED MAJOR GLANDS INVOLVED ADH (Anti-diuretic Hormone); aka Vasopressin SYMPTOMS/CLINICAL PRESENTATION Polydipsia, Polyuria, and sometimes Nocturia (+Bed-wetting) TYPES OF DIABETES INSPIDUS 1) Nephrogenic DI2) Central DI3)Primary Polydipsia4) Gestational DI 2 types: Congenital & AcquiredCongenital: Mutation in genes that code for ADH receptorscauses kidney cells not to respond to ADH (b/c receptors are not properly made)Acquired: Change in electrolyte content (hypercalcemia & hypokalemia; can be due to lithium treatment) causes kidney cells to try to reach equilibrium, which can lead to less concentrated urine (DI) Pathophysiology of NDI Pathophysiology of CDI Damage in Hypothalamus (due to surgery, inflammation, disease, or trauma) can interfere with ADH production, resulting in lower ADH avaliableLower ADH = more water excretion Pathophysiology of Primary Polydipsia Mental illness causes damage to thirst regulating mechanism = excessive water intake; can cause kidney damage Pathophysiology of Gestational Diabetes Inspidus Excessive production of vasopressinase destroys ADH too quicklyDisappears after 4-6 weeks of pregnancy but can recur during future ones TREATMENT OF DIABETES INSIPIDUS NDI) Increased fluids, lower sodium diet, hydrochlorothiazideCDI) Desmopressin-synthetic ADH + more fluidsPP) lower fluids, treat mental illnessGDI) Desmopressin NORMAL FUNCTION 1) ADH is made in the hypothalamus2) ADH goes to Posterior Pituitary3) ADH released by Post. Pit. and goes to Kidneys4) ADH binds to receptors on kidneysallowing increased water retention from urine5) Increased Urine Osmolality (decreased urine volume)6) Decreased Serum Osmolality(increased serum volume7) Decreased Serum Osmolality is detected by Hypothalamus & ADH productionreduced
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