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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 How Cancer Develops: Risk Factors: The Difference between Cancer Cells and Normal Cells: Treatment Options: -- Age: As one gets older, their risk of cancer increases. The cells in a body have divided so many times, that as a person gets older, the cells become more likely to make a mistake when copying their DNA to create a new cell. -- Family history: Family history does have an impact on one's chances of getting cancer, but it does not guarantee other family members will also get it later in life. -- Use of Tobacco: There are chemicals in tobacco smoke that are carcinogens and can cause mutations, which leads to the development of cancer. -- Viral infections: A virus inserts its genetic information into a cell when it attacks it; this can lead to overstimulated cell division or disruption of a tumor suppressor. -- Exposure to Radiation: Radiation can mutate DNA and cause cells to divide out of control. -- Chemicals: Certain chemicals are carcinogens and can result in mutations. -- Sun burns: UV radiation from the sun can alter the function of one's cells. -- Skin type: Melanin is a pigment in the skin that protects one's skin from the sun. A person with less melanin, or fair skin, is more likely to obtain a sunburn. *Mutagens are environmental factors and substances that cause mutations, while carcinogens result in the development of cancer. The human body is made up of trillions of tiny, microscopic cells. Cells contain genes that are made up of DNA, and DNA is what codes for everything about one's body. Cancer is caused by a mutation in a gene that controls cell division. Protooncogenes code for proteins that stimulate normal cell division, but they are called oncogenes when they malfunction and can cause cancer. A tumor suppressor, known as P53, inhibits cell division; it can activate genes that repair damaged DNA, and it can kill one that is irreparable. If P53 is turned off, a cell could begin to divide out of control without anything to prevent it from doing so. Unlike like the cell reproduction of normal cells, cancer cells divide at a faster rate than the cell type that produced them, and they lack contact inhibition; this means cancer cells continue to divide even after they come into contact with other cells.They are invasive and have structures that allow them to spread into any space in any direction, stimulate the growth of their own blood vessels, and secrete their own hormones to increase their rate of growth. Cancer cells can also metastasize, which means to spread to other areas of the body; this is why it is dangerous to allow cancer to go on for too long. There are three types of treatment for cancer: radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery. Radiation is the use of ioninzing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. External radiation therapy: used to treat most types of cancer. Internal radiation therapy: radiation placed very close or inside of a tumor. Systemic radiation therapy: radioactive materials are taken by mouth or injected into the body. Chemotherapy is a treatment where medications are used to treat cancer. --Dividing cells are attacked, but the medication cannot tell the difference between a cancerous cell and a normal cell. Side Effects: --Hair Loss --Tiredness --Bruising -- High rate of infection --Sores in mouth/dry skin --Nausea *These all happen because normal cells in these areas are not dividing as rapidly as they originally would. Surgery has the greatest probability to completely rid of the cancer. Prophlactic: This surgery is done to remove any tissue that could become cancerous, but is not to that stage yet. Diagnostic: Tissue samples are collected to tell whether or not it is cancerous and what form of cancer it is. *This type can be done soon after finding out a person has cancer, so doctors can gain more information to better understand how to treat their patient. Staging: This form of surgery is used to locate how many places cancer is in the body, and the best treatment option they should go with. Curative: This type of surgery remove a tumor confined to one are. In this form of surgery, surgeons attempt to completely remove the tumor. Debulking: This kind of surgery is usually done when the tumor is in a difficult spot to remove without damaging nerves or other vital areas; surgeons try to remove a part of the tumor. Comprehending Cancer Comprehending Cancer
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