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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Sections 17.4 and 18.4 tap and hold to changethis text! tap and hold to changethis text! After Stalin's death, Khrushchev launched destalinization. Workers destroyed monuments of Stalin. He also crushed the Budapest Uprising in Hungary. Imre Nagy, a liberal Communist, was executed as a result of forming a new government in Hungary that promised free elections. Leonid Brezhnev crushed the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. Alexander Dubcek wanted socialism with a human face and had reformed the government. Warsaw Pact nations invaded during the Prague Spring. Brezhnev Doctrine justified his actions claiming that the Soviet Union could force a satellite state to accept communism. In the Soviet Union he restricted human rights like freedom of speech and worship. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was exiled. Mao and Stalin had signed a treaty of friendship. The Soviets refused to share nuclear secrets with the Chinese. Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson used brinkmanship. The U-2 incident and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Secretary of State Dean Rusk and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara commented on this. Richard M. Nixon turned to Detente for his Cold War policy. It was based of realpolitik. He visited Beijing and signed the SALT I Treaty. In 1975 33 countries joined in on the treaty in the Helsinki Accords. Gerald Ford also used this policy. Carter signed but the U.S. Congress didn't ratify the treaty due to Afghanistan and India's new aquistion of nuclear weapons. Ronald Reagan announced the SDI program. Nicaragua's Contras were armed. The politburo was the ruling committee of Communist Party made Gorbachev the general secretary. He introduced glasnost. He also introduced perestroika which changed the economy and allowed small businesses. Democracy was allowed an elections were held. Gorbachev and Reagan signed the INF Treaty. The Baltic states of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia declared independence. Boris Yeltsin was elected had to deal with hard-liners. The August Coup failed after Gorbachev was detained at his estate by the Black Sea. Gorbachev returned to Moscow. The Soviet Parliament voted to stop all the activities of the Communist Party. The CIS was a loose federation. The Russian Federation was lead by Boris Yeltsin who introduced shock therapy to the economy. Inflation took hold along with unemployment. The Muslim area of Chechnya declared independence. The capital of Grozny was destroyed. Vladmir Putin became president. Severe social stress was caused by the economic, political, and social changes.
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