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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 TV commercials Public figures opinions Political campaigns The Anchoring Effect Paradigma Funcional Paradigmas Declarativos Paradigma Orientado a Objetos The Bias Blind Spot The Illusory Truth Effect Paradigmas Imperativos Su trabajo lo logra utilizando funciones puras, trasladando el concepto de función matemática a la programación. La programación orientada a objetosimplementa soluciones computablesde una forma más parecida a la queutilizamos en la vida real, ya quenosotros concebimos nuestro mundocomo un conjunto de cosas u objetoscon propiedades y atributos que losdefinen como tal. Utiliza la lógica matemática que es considerada la manera más sencilla, para el intelecto humano, de expresar formalmente problemas complejos y de resolverlos mediante la aplicación de reglas, hipótesis y teoremas. Es el que soporta más de un paradigma de programación Los paradigmas cada vez se asemejan más a la forma en que razonarmos los humanos Ejemplos: C, Pascal, basic Python, Java, PHP Ejemplos: Ejemplos: Ejemplo: Haskel y Lisp Prolog Estos son los lenguajes de programación más usados del 2014. CC BY NC SAEnrique Romero Fuentes:Lenguajes de Programación. (2005). Ismael Perea. Recuperado de: (2014) Lenguajes de programación más usados en el 2014. Recuperado de:ágenes:Que es programación porque debemos aprender Webrix: Recuperado de: MacBook táctil muycomputer: Recuperado de:ón de la computadora Recuperado de: cnd4:ón en azwm: Recuperado de: Algunos wikia: Recuperado de: java Recuperado de: Recuperado de: porhomepages: Recuperado de:ón iesaricel: Recuperado de: yannickdecosse: Recuperado de: Recuperado de: Recuperado de: Recuperado de: Recuperado de: La mayoría de los lenguajes de programación son multiparadigma pero se definen por el que predomina en su forma. double click to change this title text! Un Paradigma de Programación es un conjunto de reglas y conceptos que dirigen la elaboración de programas que a su vez constituyen software o programas de aplicación. The Illusory Truth Effect The Peak-end Bias The Anchoring Effect The FrequencyIllusion double click to change this title text! The Danger of Anchoring 1 2 Our current emotion is an anchor on which we rely when making a decision Anchors can be wrong, deceitful and misleading Having several options discussed before the negotiations (some critical figures, both higher and lower than the most desirable outcome) A tendency to believe one's own judgments are more objective and less susceptible to biasesthan the judgments of other people.Thinking the facts are true if theyre consistent with one's opinions. approach Of course Im not biased Thinking the facts are true if theyre consistent with one's opinions. Risking to lock yourself in a circle of biased opinions because of rejecting the fact you yourself are biased The Peak-end Bias A tendency to believe facts heard of permanently or at least frequently enough.The reason for this is cognitive fluency. Our brain spends less time and efforts on processing repeating information and takes it as truth just because its familiar. When Enough Is Enough? People are most likely to believe the message after hearing it 3 to 5 times Classic Examples Its better not to reiterate weak arguments to a competent, critical audience theyll spot it in an instance and foster critical thinking Respect Your Listeners René Descartes A tendency to remember experiences only at their most memorable moments (either pleasant or not) as well as the final experiences. We are inclined to think in terms of extremities rather than make moderate, sober judgments on the grounds of complex memories of the event. Two Important Observations Duration Neglect Temporal Monotonicity A tendency to remember the overall impression better than the duration of the event Criticism The Frequency Illusion In the course of time we re-assess both peaks and ends Frequency illusion = Baader-Meinhof phenomenonA tendency to start noticing some bit of newly learnedinformation everywhere else.It happens because people are able to recognize patterns in the first place. Pattern recognition is an ability to categorise all kinds of things Selective Attention BUT How Does It Works? That's Why Encourage Active Learning! We take random facts as proofs for our decisions, even if they are clearly senseless Speaking out the figures first instead of taking a wait-and-see attitude Believing in facts consistent only with your opinions and ignoring the ones contradicting them Encouraging excess self-confidence ! Beware of believing illusions of truth, not truth itself Preferring experiences with a tendency of positive moments to increase, even if the duration of negative experience will have to be longer If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things. Make Sure You're Not "Of course I'm not biased" © 2015 Of thousands things we see every day we remember only the ones which for one reason or another are interesting to us and somehow stand out from the rest. 5 Cognitive Biases That Are Threatening Decision-Making 3 1 2 The Bias Blind Spot The Peak-end Bias Emotions matter afterwards, when experiencing quite different feelings, we change our impressions once again The truth is they had already been there, notwithstanding your knowledge of it! You didnt know it beforehand and didnt notice, thats it. The Anchoring Effect Anchoring (focalism) is a tendency to refer to or rely too much on a single specific fact or opinion articulated previously.That very first fact just sticks to our minds and inevitably influences our further choices. Overcoming Anchors in Negotiations: BATNA 20 40 60 80 100
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