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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Civil Rights Movement in America By the end of World War II, more than half of the country's black population lived in Northern and Western industrial cities rather than Southern rural areas.In Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy, the historian Mary L. Dudziak wrote that Communists critical of the United States accused the nation for its hypocrisy in portraying itself as the "leader of the free world," when so many of its citizens were subjected to severe racial discrimination and violence. She argued that this was a major factor in the government moving to support civil rights legislation. A long struggle and mainly non-violent to extend full acces to civil rights and equality before the groups that do not have it, specially the black citizens. The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community. Although President Kennedy had proposed civil rights legislation and it had support from Northern Congressmen and Senators of both parties, Southern Senators blocked the bill by threatening filibusters. After considerable parliamentary maneuvering and 54 days of filibuster on the floor of the United States Senate, President Johnson got a bill through the Congress. Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the civil rights movement were passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (195556) in Alabama; Martin Luther King, Jr., a Baptist minister, was elected President of the Montgomery Improvement Association;"sit-ins" such as theinfluential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities. The Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and the Fair Housing Act of1968, that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing
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