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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Civil War The Secession Crisis Mobilization of the North and South double click to change this header text! Strategy and Diplomacy Leadership- Abraham Lincoln was commander in chief of the Union army,but after several unsuccessful generals, Grant was made commander of Union forces in 1864. Jefferson Davis was the primary commander of the Confederate war effort and Robert E. Lee named military advisor in 1862 but had little power in Davis decisionsNaval Forces- Union enforced naval blockade along Southern coast. TheConfederacy built the iron-clad,Virginia, to break through the blockade. Union built their own iron-clads including the Monitor to fight the Virginia Union navy transported supplies and reinforcements to the West via the Mississippi RiverEuropean Relations- Britain and France declared neutrality of the Civil War in 1861.France and Britain were both undecided on who to support British population supported Union while government supported Confederacy neutrality angered the Union since thisimplied the Confederacy was a sovereign nationCivilian Conflict- Fighting similar to Bleeding Kansas occurred during the war in same the areas. Both sides organized bands of guerrilla fighters to fight those who opposed their views.The most famous groups were William C. Quantrills pro-slavery fighters and the Jayhawkers who supported the Union. Native Americans- Early in the war confederate agents negotiated for alliances with the FiveCivilized Tribes, but the Indians were divided. Confederate sympathizers wanted revenge against Union for Indian Removal and Union supporters opposed concept of slavery The Course of the Battle Technology- Repeating pistols and rifles improved artillery,Iron-clads and submarines, railroads, and the telegraphFirst Battle of Bull Run- Between Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard andUnion General Irvin McDowell. Many unionists believed this battle would both begin and end the war. Confederates organized a successful counter against the Union assault and dispersed McDowells forces, which ended in an unexpected Confederate victoryWestern Combat- Union General Ulysses Grant led majority western campaign.The campaign was very successful for the Union forces. Union victoriesincluded the capture of New Orleans and control of the Mississippi River. Eastern Combat- Not as successful for the Union during the first half of the war. The main goal was to capture Richmond which was the confederate capital.Failures were caused by poor Union leadership and Lees strategic movementsGrant and Sherman's Victories- Grant and Shermans strategies made victory possible after The Battle of Gettysburg.Sherman captured Atlanta and Savannah, using total war to devastate the South. Lincoln appointed Grant in control of Union armies. Grant captured railroad junction at Petersburg, causing Lee to surrender. Secession- 7 states seceded from the Union to create the Confederate States of AmericaCrittenden Compromise- Proposed Compromise that would make slavery permanent in the South and re-establish the Missouri Compromise line Fort Sumter Bombardment- Fort Sumter was under federal control in seceded territory and led to 4 more states seceding from the UnionUnion Advantages- Major Union Advantages were: being twice the size of the South, 4 times the population, and superior industry and manufacturingConfederate Advantages- Major Confederate Advantages: Fought a defensive war, a firm commitment to war, civilian support, and familiarity with land. Financing the War- North: Levying taxes,issuing national paper currency, andborrowing funds. South: Requested funds from individual states, income tax, borrowing, and issuing paper currency Conscription- Term used for drafting soldiers. Union established national draft in 1863 which led to the draft riots. Confederacy established Conscription Act in 1862. Rich mencould pay money to avoid being draftedRepression- Lincoln tried to suppress the dissenters against the war. People were arrestedand Lincoln took away the right of Habeas Corpus,. Emancipation Proclamation- Officially freed all slaves in Confederacy in states not under Union control on Jan. 1, 1863. It established the wars goal of eliminating slavery andinspired many slaves to free themselves.African Americans and Women- Black enlistment largely increased after Emancipation.Black soldiers were often mistreated and assigned menial tasks Civil War shifted nursingfrom male dominant to female dominant. US Sanitary Commission was created by volunteer female nurses. In the South, wives of planters had to take over plantations to keep them functioning
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