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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Chapter 31: Allison & Rachel How the USSR Became a Superpower and its Affects Aided to the establishment of Communist North KoreaAided Communist Party in ChinaCommunist Vietnam became AllyDeveloped atomic and hydrogen bomb The Journey Affects in Eastern Europe Evolution of Domestic Policies Economy Society Culture De-Stalinization New Europe End of European Colonialism Spread of Liberal Democracies Creation of Welfare State Diplomacy Economics Disapproval by America and USSRFading powerNationalist movements Not as fitting for modern era Establishment of new regimes in Italy and Germany after WW2Movement towards democracy by Spain, Portugal, Greece, etc.Leaning towards political uniformity in Europe Change of lifestyleRise of new policies and lawsChanges in economy and employment Creation of NATOStrengthening of European tiesCreation of European UnionCommon currency - EuroFree Movement of labor and investment encouragedLower tariffs among members and common tariff for other parts of the worldAdvisory international parliamentLower nationalist tensionsDiplomatically placid As opposed to tension between communist USSR and capitalist America European UnionIncreased agricultural production and productivityIncrease in gross national product Rapidly growing economies (Such as France and Italy)Increase in service sector workersMajor immigrationPartly due to shortage of workersOften led to discriminationRise of consumer worldAffluent societyStandard goods such as TVs and cars Cold War Allies Canada United States Australia & New Zealand Forged ahead in welfare policiesLarge stake in economic planningState-run medical insuranceEconomic integration with USUS investments in Canadian resources, mutual exports, and imports soaredLaws passed to prevent excessive American penetration into economyRise of Canadian nationalism, resentment towards USFree-trade agreement signed with USLarge amounts of immigrantsAgitation of French-Canadians in QuebecDesired autonomy or independent nationAppeased by new constitution granting greater voice to provinces Rise as a world superpowerOpposed USSRDefenders of democracy and capitalism Mutual defense pact with USDirected against potential Communist aggression in PacificCooperated with US in Korean War and VietnamEventually began to drift away from USNew Zealand barred US nuclear-armed vesselsExports largely directed to other pacific nations, such as JapanElimination of whites only immigration policy in Australia Cold War Intense concern about possible internal communist conspiracies -Many dismissed from jobs on suspicion of holding Communist sympathiesDefense Department set up to coordinate military policyCIA established for gathering information and creating an espionage networkFormation of Strategic Air Command to guard against potential Soviet bombingsConflicts -Thwarted USSRs hold on Berlin with Berlin airlift -Fought with South Korea against North Korea -Attempt to keep Cuba from becoming communist failed -Fought with South Vietnam against North Vietnam -US pressure felt all over the worldPolicy of containment of USSR (Made alliances surrounding it)Election of Ronald Reagan -New weapons systems -Intervention in several other nationsEnd of Cold War -Collapse of Soviet Union -US only remaining superpower Rise of Rival Superpowers -America and the USSR -Clash of Communism and Capitalism -Space Race -Nuclear Arms RaceRising tensionsMore and more powerful weapons -Partition of Europe between West and RussiaSplit GermanySplit BerlinAmerican and Western influence in Europe New Political Movements -Civil rights (America) -Student uprisings (America against Vietnam war and other nations) -Green movement (Germany in particular) -New leadership in groups such as US Republicans and British ConservativesReduction of welfare state -Greece, Albania, and Yugoskavia were not made part of the Communist regime-5 year plans-Warsaw Pact-Collectivization of agriculture-Berlin Wall-Solidarity-New systems of mass education -Strict limits on travel, outside media, or any uncensored glimpse of the outside world-Soviet Union became isolated -State controlled virtually all economic sectors-Consumer goods were not as valued as heavy industrial goods-Most people in the Soviet Union were poor-State basically focused only on military and getting ahead, while not caring about citizens-Soviet Industrialization caused environmental damage-More people farmed in the Soviet Union-Married women worked -Social structure was similar to the West-Nuclear family unit increased-Birthrates dropped-Mass system of education-Children were more strictly disciplined-Soviets took pride in the constructive role of women and their official equality, but there were still problems -Nikita Khrushchev gained primary power after Stalin's death-Khrushchev condemned Stalin and attacked Stalinism-Little to no reform despite change in attitude-Lowered Cold War tensions-Allowed access to Western culture-Space program-Change in foreign policy - Limited religion-People looked to science and Marxist explanations-Artistic and literary styles were monitored-Educational system brainwashed children-Attacked modern Western styles of art and literature-Placed importance on ballet and orchestra-Literature was diverse and creative-Writers were often close to crossing the line Culture and Society in the West Social Structure Women's Revolution Western Culture Lively Popular Culture Before:-Workers had no property-Social lines-Unskilled laborAfter:-Social lines were blurred-Educational opportunities were expanded-White collar sector expanded-Immigrants did unskilled labor -Women began working more because of WW2-Number of working, married women rose-Women were provided more education-They wanted to contribute to the family income-Several other countries granted women the right to vote-Gains in higher education-Family rights improved-Abortion law was adopted--Beginning of new feminism-Birth rate decreased -New movements arose-New scientific data was unearthed-Skilled, intelligent immigrants moved to the USto escape Europe -"Coca-cola-nization"-Television made growing impacts-Beatles-New vigor-New fashion-Sex became more casual
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