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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 CLONING Cloning envisioned by Dr. Hans Spemann 1938 Noori, the first cloned Pashmina goat, was cloned in Kashmir 2012 Structure of DNA discovered by Watson and Crick 1957 A TIMELINE PROCESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A somatic cell is taken from an organism A An egg cell is taken from an organism B The nucleus of the egg cell is removed The two cells are fused together The clone of organism A is born The fused cell begins to develop into an embryo The embryo is implanted into a surrogate mother The first cloning experiment resulted in a cloned tadpole 1970 A baby bull is cloned from a bull that was cloned itself, the first large scale re-cloning case 2000 Dolly was the first sheep to be cloned from adult cells 1996 President Bill Clinton passed a five year ban on cloning and its research 1997 HUMAN CLONING THERAPEUTIC CLONING REPRODUCTIVE CLONING PRACTICE Countries that permit and regulate therapeutic cloning Britain China Finland Japan Netherlands South Korea Mouse Cow House Cat Human $ 2,000 $ 20,000 $ 50,000 $ 2,000,000 1, A single egg necessary for human cloning can cost meaning costs for one patientcan easily soar above $100,000 277 cloned embryos 13 pregnancies 1 successful birth of first cloned animal Cloning cells from an adult for use in medicine and organ transplants Creating an animal that is genetically identical to the donor through somatic cell nuclear transfer Of 1,005 Americans: Would you eat cloned fruits and vegetables? 49% said yes 49% 66% 33% 74% Is it immoral to clone animals? Is cloning against God's will? Would you eat meat from clonedanimals? said yes said yes said yes said yes Is it immoral to clone humans? Polly, a genetically engineeredsheep, is cloned with a human gene in every cell of her body 1997 Piglets are cloned by a company that eventually wants to clone human organs 2000 Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology clone human embryos for the first time 2001 President Bush limits federally funded human embryonic stem cell research 2001 The first commercially cloned pet, a cat, is cloned for $50.000 2001 The first dog is cloned- a difficult task considering their complex reproductive biology 2005 Britain becomes the first country to issue research licenses for human embryonic cloning 2003 California becomes the first state to legalize therapeutic cloning of embryos 2002 Cloning is a revolutionary advancement in bioengineering that can lead to many useful adaptations ranging from cultivating healthy crops to reviving extinct animals and preventing or curing diseases, but there are concerns about the future of this technology. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cloned CowsConventional Cows Late-term pregnancy loss Large offspring syndrome Overall mortality Neonatalmortality Hydrops Biomedical Research PRO Agriculture andDrug Production OrganReplacement Treatmentof Disease Saving Endangered Species Reproduction MaintainingBiodiversity Cloned animals can be used to produce medically important proteins such asfactor IX, a protein deficient in hemophiliacs Increased Risk of Genetic Defects CON Reliability Upbringing of Cloned Children Security FasterAging Lack of Diversity IncreasedMalpractice "Playing God" Premature Death of cloning attempts fail Over 90% 18% of cloned calves die at birth 32% of remaining calves die within the first month Cloning technology can be used to replace failing organs, eliminating both the waiting list and the risk of rejection by the body Cloning involves the creation of identical genes, and this could create a lack of diversity in the human race that scientists believe would reduce our ability to adapt Cloning can produce genetically identical laboratory animals which can be used as models for human disease. Genetically related children can be created for people with no sperm or eggs or same sex couples without the use of donor reproductive cells THE DEBATE FUTURE SOURCES: Stem Cell Regeneration Possible Cure for Cancer Improved Plastic Surgery Cloning Extinct & Endangered Species Using extracted DNA, it may be possible to clone extinct animals. Additionally, endangered animals can be cloned to increase the rate of reproduction and potentially save the species. With cloning technology, doctors will be able to produce skin, fat, bone, and muscle that match a patient's existing tissue in order to avoid the possibility of disease and rejection. The information we learn about cells through cloning may help scientists and doctors distinguish the cell differentiation behind cancer. Embryonic stem cells can be grown to produce organs or tissues to replace damaged areas. Skin, brain cells, and other specialized cells can be created through cloning. To conclude, cloning offers many opportunities for advancements in the field of bioengineering. However, these advancements come with ethical and physical dilemmas. The technology behind cloning is still new and not completely reliable, so problems have arisen- and will continue to- with cloning experiments. It is up to us as a culture to decide whether or not we have the power and the right to "play God". Cloning can prove to be a solution for diseases, extinction, agriculture and medicine, and more. If we decide these advancements are worth the risks, the technology can expand and change our world. Cells can be harvested from early embryos to provide cell and tissue replacement without the hazard of rejection when treating disease
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