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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis double click to changethis text! Drag a cornerto scale proportionally. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood, and various blood vessels. The various functions of the circulatory system include cellular communication throughout the body, servicing cells with nutrition, cellular respiration, waste removal, fighting disease, and thermoregulation. Cellular communication is the process of transportation of hormones throughout the body. All cells in the body communicate by sending signals and receiving them aswell. Signals are generated from stimuli from the environment or from other systems in the body. When receiving this stimulusa nerve cell transmits this information through an electrical signal. This signal triggers the release of neurotransmitters.Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that pass specificinformation to shut off or turn on certain cells throughout the body. These chemical messengers are released at a locationknown as a synapse. The synapse is a location which allows a neuron (nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical charge. Another function of the circulatory system is to transportnutrients from digested food to cells throughout the body. This nutrients is absorbed by the small intestine. The small intestinethen passes the nutrients to the circulatory system where it is distributed to all the cells throughout the body. The circulatory system and the respiratory system work together to re-oxynegate and circulate blood. This process is calledcellular respiration. The circulatory system including the heart and the respiratory system including the lungs work together by inhaling and exhaling. In the lungs blood is pumped by the heart, where the blood is oxygenated. The oxygenated blood is then returned to the heart and pumped throughout the body. The respiratory system performs gasexchange that releases carbon dioxide from the body and brings in oxygen. The circulatory system then brings then brings the oxygen to tissues that burn the "fuel" in the form of ATP for energy. The oxygendiffuses across thin walls of the alveoli in the lungs and the thin walls of blood vessels in the lungs into the blood stream. All in all they work to provide the tissues of the body with oxygen. The circulatory system also removes waste products from the body including poisons that could harm the bodyif they were to become overly apparent. The circulatorysystem removes wastes from many parts of the body. The respiratory, digestive, and urinary systemsare examples of systems in which wastes are removed.As said earlier in the respiratory system waste is removed in the form of carbon dioxide. The circulatory system also will pull out important nutrients from the digestive system. These nutrients can include important vitamins, sugars in the form of glucose, minerals. These are delivered to tissues throughout the body while the left over is removed from the body in the form of feces. The urinary system including the kidneys removes waste aswell. Waste products from tissues are filtered through the kidney and leaves the body in the form of urine. The last function of the circulatory system is called thermoregulation. Thermoregulation is the ability of the body to maintain it's inner body temperature. The most important heat transfer in the body is through bloodThis process is called vascular convective heat transfer.During exercise, the muscles contracting produce heatto the skin surrounding the limbs participating in the exercise as well asparts of the body that aren't through circulating bloodin the body. The circulatory system has a very important job of delivering and removing all the very important things we need in our body. Without it there would be no way of communication, transportation, andheat regulation through out the body. The Circulatory System The Circulatory System By Dante Billeci Atherosclerosis is a disease that causes hardening of the arteries. Although, symptoms do not begin until the flow of blood becomes slowed or blocked. When this occurs symptoms such as chest pains and shortness of breath can occur. If arteries in the limbs become clogged with plaque your legs and arms can result in pain as well. Atherosclerosis can also result in heart attack and stroke. This is because the plaque build up in the arteries can cause a blood clot. This blood clot prevents blood to travel to the heart,resulting in a heart attack or to the brain resulting in a stroke. To live with atherosclerosis includes ongoing care. Working closely with doctors and other health specialists will help reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Atherosclerosis externally can cause pains in the calves due to low circulation in the legs. Internally, plaque build up in the arteries due to a large intake of high in fat and cholesterol foods. Atherosclerosis biochemically can cause the block of oxygen rich blood to the heart from plaque build up in the arteries. Psychologically, atherosclerosis is well associated with psychologic stress. This is due to the altered immune reactions. How atherosclerosis progresses is a very complex process and is not very clear. Many scientists studying this disease believe that elevated levels of cholesterol and fats, smoking, and high blood pressure contribute to the damage of the inner lining of arteries in the human body. This damage causes in the artery, fats, calcium, cholesterol, and other substances in blood to accumulate over time. This results in cells of the artery wall to produce other substances, causing more accumulation in the innermost layer of the artery where the plaque forms. Soon the artery narrows and blood flow through those arteries is significantly reduced, and also the oxygen supply to the heart and other organs. Most the time a blood clot forms, which exterminates the flow of blood completely. If the flow of oxygen rich blood is cut off to the brain it can cause a stroke, and to the heart a heart a heart attack. Gangrene can also result if blood is cut off to the limbs. Symptoms Symptoms The circulatory system is greatly affected byatherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is caused bysmoking, large amounts of cholesterol and fatsin the blood, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar levels in the blood due to diabetes.These things can cause plaque build up in the arteries.Arteries carry oxygen rich blood to the heart.When plaque, made of substances in the blood such asfats, calcium, and cholesterol block the arteries, it cancause serious problems. Over time the plaque build up the arteries hardens and narrows the pathway foroxygen rich blood to go to the heart and other organs inthe body. This leads to problems such as heart attack,stroke and sometimes death. Affects of Atherosclerosis on the Circulatory System Affects of Atherosclerosis on the Circulatory System Treatment for atherosclerosis is to reduce plaque build up and to prevent heart attack. To do this life style changes, medication, and other medical procedures may take place. This disease cannot be prevented prenatally. The only wayto prevent this disease prenatally is if the mother does not smoke during pregnancy. There is no cure for this disorder. The only treatments available are to reduce plaque build up in the arteries. Treatment Treatment There are many tests that a doctor can doto prevent atherosclerosis. One examination that a doctor may do is a test in which they listen for a whooshing sound called a bruit. To do this examination they place a stethoscope over an affected artery. The sound, bruit, may indicate poor blood flow. A second test is to simply check pulses in your legs, arms, or feet.An absent pulse can also indicate a blocked artery. Another test is by testing the levels of your blood. These are the levels of fats, cholesterol, sugars, and etcLevels that appear abnormal can suggest atherosclerosis.A fourth test is to put your heart to work by exercising. When exercising the heart needs a high supply of blood and oxygen. Atherosclerosis cant supply enough blood and oxygen to satisfy the heart. A doctor will monitor your blood pressure and the rhythm of the heart. If atherosclerosis is apparent, abnormal heart rate and blood pressure. Also shortness of breath and chest pains will result. There are many other ways to detect this disease. Detection Detection Atherosclerosis has long-term affects on the personwith the disease. To keep high levels of cholesterol,fats, and sugar levels in the blood down, you need to maintain a healthy diet. Maintaining a healthy diet will reduce plaque levels in arteries. This disease can alsobe physically limiting. The plaque preventing the oxygenated blood to the heart causes shortness of breath. This can cause exercise to be difficult.This disease can be life threatening, but it is not invariably fatal. With proper diet, heart attack, stroke,and other death causing activity can be prevented. PrognosisOutlook Prognosis/Outlook
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