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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Respiratory Urinary Circulatory Levels of Organization and Transportation Digestive Integumentary Cardiovascular Blood Structure Structure Structure Structure Structure Structure Structure Function Function Function Function Function Function Function -connective tissue-composed of living cells (formed elements) -non-living matrix (plasma)-erythrocytes (RBC) carry O2-leukocytes (WBC) fight disease-platelets (cell fragments) form clots -transports hormones, nutrients, oxygen (and other gases), waste, salts, proteins, and formed elements throughout body -maintain proper chemical balance -oxygenate body -cardiac muscle (intercalated disks) forms heart-arteries carry oxygenated blood-veins carry deoxygenated blood-heart valves push blood (one way) through 4 chambers of heart-2 atria, superior to 2 ventricle, divided in the middle by thick tissue called the septum, make up the heart -pumps blood to lungs to be oxygenated and then into body tissues to sustain them-Systole is the contraction of the ventricles and Diastole is the period of ventricular relaxation-EKG is a simple painless test that records the heart's electrical activity. -provide oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide (oversees the gas exchange)-external respiration: gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli-internal respiration: gas exchange between blood and tissue cells-inspiration: diaphragm contracts-expiration: diaphragm relaxes-tidal volume is the volume of air from a normal breath -lining of lungs (pseudostratified ciliated columnar)-nose, larynx, trachea (hyaline cartilage)-alveoli (simple squamous)-nasal cavity lined with respiratory mucosa-pharynx/throat leads to larynx-epiglottis: (flap of elastic cartilage) prevents food going into the trachea-lungs: left lobe is bigger than right; rest on the diaphragm-bronchi lead to alveoli (branch into bronchioles) -body membranes that cover the body or organs-made of epithelium or connective tissue-skin is stratified squamous; lines body cavities open and close to the exterior-connective membranes (in joints) are areolar tissue -epidermis is the outer layer, then dermis, than hypodermis-sweat glands and hair folicels -regulate body temperature (sweating)-perspiration excretes excess waste, salts, and electrolytes-hair serves as protection and regulates temperature-1st defense level of immune system-synthesis of vitamin D from UV light-covers organs Body Systems and Homeostasis -Anatomical Position is standing foreword and errect, palms out, with arms to side. -Cells->Tissue->Organs->Organ Systems->Organisms -Feedback loops are reaction to stimuli; how the body regulates homeostasis-Superior vs inferiorAnterior vs PosteriorMedial vs LateralProximal vs DistalSuperficial vs Deep -Stem cells- unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves;can come from cord blood or embryonic tissue-Passive Transport- substances get transported across a membrane without the usage of energy-Active transport- Transport requiring energy, from low conc->high conc-Facilitated diffusion- provides means for substances too large or lipid insoluble to pass through the cells. -Kidneys (dense connective tissue)-Ureters (smooth muscle and transitional epithelium)-Bladder (smooth muscle and transitional epithelium) -Urethra (epithelium)-Urine is made of uric acid, water, creatinine, potassium, and sodium-pH is between 5 and 7 bring slightly acidic -mouth (mechanical digestion)-esophagus (stratified squamous)-stomach (rugae expand smooth muscle)-small intestine (columnar epithelium)-large intestine (simple columnar)-rectum (stores waste)-liver (superior to intestinal tract) -responsible for mechanical and chemical digestive process-organs (smooth muscle) expand to allow large amounts of food-liver creates bile that is stored in gallbladder until it can be used in digestion-stomach secretes enzymes to break down food (chemical digestion)-teeth chew food (mechanical digestion)-small intestine does majority of nutrient absorption eliminates waste through filtration of nitrogenous waste, toxins, and drugs; maintains water, electrolytes, pH in blood, and RBC production the blood carries nutrients and oxygen that the cells need to function, chemicals and fluids to maintain temperature and pH, and carries away waste to rid the body of toxins different nutrients, hormones and gases are transported through the body in the different cells; waste is eliminated sweat regulates temperature and eliminates toxins through the sweat glands the gas exchange occurring affects the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body and the pH of the blood -maintains water and pH balance-water and electrolytes are monitored by kidneys-eliminates waste such as drugs, toxins, and nitrogenous waste-filtration is a passive process that occurs in nephrons of kidneys-reabsorption occurs in nephrons, taking necessary amino acids, water, electrolytes, and ions back into blood-secretion happens in nephrons, removing material from the blood (excess water, ions, glucose, etc.) extracts materials necessary for the body to function from food; provides energy and functionality
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