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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Muscular Dystrophy in Dogs: Does the Crossing of Breeds Influence Disease Phenotype? Background: Materials: Animals: 12 Male dogs between 7 and 15 months old -6 Dystrophic Golden retrievers -3 Golden/Yellow Lab mixes (bred from dystrophic golden retriever and non dystrophic yellow lab) -3 Non dystrophic Golden Retrievers (Dogs were classified according to genotypic analysis and serum creatine kinase levels)Serum CK Concentration: Serum samples were obtained by means of venipuncture, starting just after the dogs' birth and continuing monthly until the biopsy. The CK analysis was determined by means of an enzymatic kit. Methods: Analysis of the genomic DNA: The DNA was extracted from the blood samples collected from the young dogs using a commercial kit. The genotypes and phenotypes were determined from the samples at the Human Genome Study center at the University of Sao Paulo. Collection and Processing of Muscle Samples: The muscle samples of the nondystropic and dystrophic dogs were collected by using a biopsy. Sections were collected from the masseter, diaphragm, biceps brachii, long head of the triceps brachii, superficial head of the biceps femurs, thesemitendinosus, the semimembranosus and cranial sartorial muscles. Each individual sample was immersed in n-hexane followed by freezing and storing in liquid nitrogen. Then the distribution of muscle patterns was evaluated. Results: Reference: L. G. Miyazato1, J. R. E. Moraes1, D. C. Beretta1and J. N. Kornegay2 Muscular Dystrophy in Dogs: Does the Crossing of Breeds Influence Disease Phenotype? Golden retriever muscular dystrophy is an inherited degenerative muscle disease. This disease providesan excellent model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. In this research project the authors wanted to study the influence on disease phenotype in purebred golden retrievers and golden labrador retrievers. Muscular dystrophy in dogs is described as the heterotrophy of the tongue, diaphragm, cranial sartorius, or esophagus. This means that the skeletal muscles increase in size of its component cells. Figure 1: Muscle cells of the DogsLeft column is the dystrophic GoldenLabrador Retrievers and theright column is the dystrophic Golden Retriever.First two pictures are the masseter.Middle two pictures are the Triceps brachii.Final two pictures are the cranial sartorius. After the tests the muscle lesions were graded on a scale of grade 1 to 3, 3 being the most severe and 1 being the least severe.Six of the eight (75%) muscles examined in the golden retrievers had severe lesion grade (grade 3). Where as seven muscles in the golden labrador retrievers (87.5%) had mild lesion grade (grade 2) and only one muscle had severe lesion grade (grade 3). This is shown in the table to the left. This shows that the crossing ofbreeds does reduce the effects of muscular dystrophy. Figure 2: Table showing the difference in lesion grades in each of the muscles observed during the study. From this table we can see that the lesions in the golden labrador retrievers are almost always smaller then the golden retrievers
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