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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Biotechnology Enzymes can be immobilised in alginate, a gel bead formed by dripping the sodium alginate and enzyme solution into calcium chloride solution. Immobilising enzymes prevents thesubstrate and enzymes from mixing therefore making the product easily obtained, non-contaminatedand the enzyme is retained. Mycroprotein is produced by fusarium fungus in a continuous culture fed with glucose, ammonium phosphate and traces of zinc and copper. The temperature and oxygen levels are carefully monitored. Hyphae are centrifuged from the liquid mixture and then the RNA is removed by enzymes and the product is filtered and steam treated. Enzymes are produced by bacteriaand fungi in batch cultures provided with a carbon source (maize or sugar cane stalks), a nitrogen source(urea, old yeast or ammonium) and are kept aerated.Enzymes are extracted via a process of heating to kill the organism, centrifugal to separate cells from mixture, disintegration by pressureanother centrifuge and then purification Penicillin is producedby Penicillium anaerobic bacteria of which penicillin is its secondary metabolitetherefore it takestime to reach peakproduction.Penicillium is grownin a batch fed(with carbohydrates)culture that iscooled and aerated. Antibodies can be used to deliver anti cancer drugs directly to cancer cells without damaging other tissues due to their specific nature, antibodies are made for the cancer cells and they act like heat seeking missiles. batch cultures are easy toset up.the fermenters can be usedfor multiple processes.contamination is contained in one batch.pipes are unlikely to be blocked by cell clumps. Pregnancy tests use an antibody produced by hybridoma that is specific for hCG. The antibodiesare bound to gold and the end ofthe stick is coated in antibodies.There are two test points of immobilised antibodies on the stick,one is complementary for the antibody without hCG the other is complementary for the antibody with hCG. 2 stripes indicated by a build up of gold on the immobilised antibodies is a positive result. Mining with Bacteria production is continuous, no downtime for cleaning.smaller vessels can be used as nutrients doesn't have to be stored. Treatrment Diagnostics Pregnancy tests Immobilising Enzymes Valuable metals are often in insoluble sulphide oreswhich some forms of bacteria oxidise to a solublesulphate that can be washed out as leachate in a process called bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a rod shaped aerobicbacteria that oxidises iron from its sulphide ore to its sulphate in a metabolic reaction.Bacteria used for mining have to be able to withstand arange of temperatures and low pH due to the sulphuric acid produced. Bacteria mining can be used in situ, on low grade ores,ash and waste, and no sulphur dioxide is produced. Cultures: Batch vs. Continuous Penicillin Enzymes Penicillin is an antibiotic that kills bacteria. It inhibits the production of a enzyme that makes strands to strengthen the cell walls, as the cell grows its walls become week and it busts due to high internal pressure. This is ineffective on humans as we have no cell walls and on viruses as they have no cells. Resistance to penicillin is caused by a mutated gene which codes for the production of b-lactamase an enzyme that breaks up penicillin. It is a gene found on the plasmid which is transferable between bacteria species. Mycroprotien Monoclonal Antibodies B-lymphocytes from mice are fussedwith cancer cells from mice forming hybridoma cells that both replicate and produce antibodies. The cells are separated and the ones producing the required antibodies are selected and cloned. Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a process called hybridoma. Antibodies are produced by b-lymphocytes but they dont replicate therefore antibodies production is not viable on a large scale. A downfall of these antibodies is that they are produced from mice cells and are recognised as foreign in humans triggering an immune response. Dip sticks Biosensors Testing for glucose in the blood or urine is done using the enzyme glucose oxidase. The enzyme is immobilised to a dip stick. Glucose is oxidised to gluconolactone producing hydrogen peroxide that produces a brown colour with a chemical on the stick. The darker the brown colour the stronger the concentration of glucose in the blood. Biosensors use the same immobilised enzyme except it is on an electrode, the oxidation of glucose produces a small current that is detectedby the device and turns it into aglucose concentration figure. Diagnostics can be very specific due to the nature of and antibody to have on complementary fit. For blood clots the antibody for fibrin is used, after it is treated with a radioactive isotope that shows up on a gamma-ray camera the antibody is injected into the bloodstream and clots can be detected. Brodie de Gouw
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