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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Epinephrine (Adrenaline) By: Graham Saunders Purpose of the substance Method of entry into body Physiological response to the substance Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) What is it? A naturally occurring hormone (and a neurotransmitter) that is either secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands or produced at the end of sympathetic nerve fibres. Use of externally produced Epinephrine For means of an injection, the Epinephrineused is either extracted from the adrenal glands of domesticated animals or produced synthetically in a lab. Is it similar to Epinephrine? Can either be injected into the (thigh) musclesvia an auto-injector to allow for the hormone todiffuse into the blood stream or can be intravenouslyinjected directly into the blood stream via a dilutedsolution (Usually at a concentration of 1mg/mL). Yes, the two hormones go hand in hand as chemically they only differ slightly. They are both created in the same place and both have a similar effect on the sympathetic nervous system. How is it made? Formed in the body from the amino acid tyrosine. In turn Epinephrine is made from Norepinephrine. Effects Triggers all sympathetic responses (increasesand promotes what the organ already does).Induces the "fight or flight" response which prepares the body for strenuous activity. -Dilates pupil-Accelerates heart-Relaxes Bronchi-Stimulates glucose release by liver-Inhibits salvation-Inhibits digestive activity-Relaxes bladder-contracts rectum Similiar to Epinephrine in that it triggers most sympathetic responses with the exception of a few (ex. constricts a fewspecific blood vessels that were instead dilated by epinephrine). Therefore in certain situations, it is used instead because of its slight variation from its counter part epinephrine. (ex. used to combat falling blood pressure) The purpose of epinephrine injections is to trigger the flight or flight response in the body and provide a time buffer until medical attention arrives (in the case of an epi-pen). It can be used in a variety of extreme medical cases, some of which include cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis, superficial bleeding,allergic reaction etc. A short term solution to a serious issue that needs to befurther addressed by medical personnel
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