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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Chapter 31 Infographic WESTERN SOCIOECONOMICS Before Economic Growth After Economic Growth -workers had no property to their name-social divisions well defined-small -workers became consumers-education was more accessible-white-collar sector grew as more people were educated-immigrants did bulk of the unskilled labor-peasants entered the economic and political spheres CHANGES IN THE TRADITIONAL FAMILY STRUCTURE WHY WOMEN BEGAN WORKING -women entered workforce in the world wars-rate of working women fell afterwards, but began to rise consistently in the US, Canada, and western Europeafter the early 1950s-more service jobs=higher demand for employees-desire for consumer products also fueled womens emergence in the work force proportionally. -by 70s, 44% of the employed were women-typically married women with children-usually had clerical jobs with lower wages-gained the right to vote if their country didnt previously allow it by 1971 (Switzerland was the last of western Europe to grant the vote)-continued schooling through high school, if not college as well-divorces and abortions became more accepted and obtainable-contraceptive pill (60s) allowed for more casual relationships-women began having fewer and fewer children-took on new feminism (began in 1949)-- called for real equality between the sexes and fewer gender roles. double click to change this title text! THE 20th CENTURY WOMAN Employment by Gender (by 1970s) red: femaleblue: male ECONOMIC GROWTH LED TO: Intellectual Culture-intellectual elites immigrated to the United Statesto get away from Europes turmoil in the 30s and 40s-”brain drain”- more European scientists moved to America because universities were wealthier and allowed for more experimentation and research-economics became a strong area of study Art-modern art-people were more open to new styles and techniques in thearts-pop art merged commercial mass culture and art Role of Sex in Society-sex became more casual in pop culture-more premarital sex-Europe expressed sexuality more than America WESTERN CULTUREAND THE EMERGENCE OF POP CULTURE Coca-cola-nization”-- Americas pop culture was emulated by Europe WESTERN SOCIETY AND CULTURE THE SOVIET EMPIRE -Soviet protectorate in communist North Korea (US had protectorate over South Korea)-sway over communist China-allied with communist Vietnam in 1970s-allied with communist Cuba in 1960s-caught up with American nuclear arms through espionage-world superpower-eastern Europe (except for Greece) was turned into communist regimes by the Soviets. The Soviets aligned with all the new regimes except for Albania and Yugoslavia -5 year plan used for industrialization-Collectivization of agriculture-Soviet/eastern Europe trading alliance- Warsaw Pact-Soviet military in eastern Europe SOVIET PROJECTS -aristocracy in communist regimes was eradicated-mass education for the common people-much urban growth-Western culture had less influence-alcoholism-the work force wasnt motivated to perform well because there were no rewards (consumer items) SOCIETY -propaganda spread fear about the US- justified strict control-Stalin kept the people away from the Wests ideas and people-people were isolated by censorship DOMESTIC POLICY -strictly secular- government was against religion-emphasis on Marxist, scientific orthodoxy-education made children loyal to the Soviet Union and communism-huge emphasis on the sciences CULTURE -economy was controlled by the state- no private enterprises-heavy-manufacturing sector was strongly funded state, but consumer-goods sector was not valued-consumerism was weak because society was mostly poor and state funds went to building military technology (arms race)-factories made for terrible treatment of the environment -more people were employed in agriculture than in the West-married women had always been a part of the labor force because of the poor economy-economy fell (but the demise was hidden by government) and the USSR fell apart ECONOMY DE-STALINIZATION -Nikita Khrushchev led the USSR after Stalin died. He was against the traditional, heavy power given arbitrarily to a dictator- Stalinism. Not much happened changed, however.-Space Race-When the Cold War slowed down, exposure to the West was allowed U.S.S.R. After World War II Western Europe devastated 1. Europe and Its Colonies a. Problems with housing and transportationb .Secondary playersc .Decolonization i.Organized Nationalist Resistanced. Europes Worldwide power reduced significantlye.Powerful change in world affairs 2.The Cold War U.S. and Soviet Union influenced Western politics and society a. Soviet and Eastern Bloc emerges b. Harry Truman and atom bomb c. Iron Curtain d. United States vigorous response Marshall Plan a. Loans to Western nations by the U.S. b. Promoted economic development Germany was the focal point a. Unified West Germany b. Soviet blockade of Berlin NATO was formeda. Western Europe and Canada to stop communist aggression Warsaw Pact in response a. Developed own nuclear power U.S. and Soviet military stationed in Europe 3.Implication for Western Europe U.S. influences on internal and foreign policy a. German rearmamentb. Military expendituresc. Nuclear umbrella 4.Conflict outside Europe -Korea-Vietnam-Middle East 5. France leaves NATO The resurgence of Western Europe A. Liberal Democracy 1.Christian Democratic current 2. New regimes in Germany, Italy and France 3.Democracy in Western Europe a. Political uniformityB. Welfare State 1.Shift leftward 2.New programs to reduce economic inequality 3.United States New Deal and Great Society 4.Social Insurance a. Unemployment insurance b. Medicare c. The technocratC.New challenges to political stability 1.Student protests 2.Civil Rights Movement a. Unequal treatment of African Americans b. Segregation, voting rights 3.Green Movement 4.Reagan and ThatcherD. Diplomatic Context 1.Christian Democratic movement a.West Germany joins NATO b. French-German coordination 2.European Economic Community a.Tariff policies b.Free labor and investment movement c.Trade barriers d. Single currency e.Lowered nationalistic tensionE.Economic expansion 1.European agriculture productivity 2.Retooled industries 3. Weapons production 4. Immigration to Europe from Africa and Middle East;Latinos to the United States 5.Affluent Society a.Consumer goods b.Advertising Cold War Allies: The U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand Former Dominions 1. Canada and strong welfare policies 2. Canadian economic integration with U.S. 3. North American trading bloc 4. Emigration to Canada 5. French agitation in Quebec 6. Australia and New Zealand moves away from Britain a. Australia defense pact with U.S. b. Trade with Pacific nations c. Asian emigration to Australia U.S. Century”? 1. U.S. Superpower a. Opposing Soviet Union b. Defended of democratic and capitalist values 2. Cold War at home a. Communist conspiracies, spies b. Established CIA c. Increased military spending 3. Korean War 4. Soviet containment a. Cuba joins communist camp b. Missile crisis c. Vietnam War 5. Ronald Reagan a.Ride Tall b. New weapons systems 6. Involvement in Kuwait and the Balkans 7. Cold War ends U.S. only remaining world superpower
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