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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Internet history How was it developed? The internet as we know it today was only a vague idea several years ago Before 1950The computersonly work one task at a time This is called Batch processing The computers startto become bigger so they have to be stored in cooled rooms. The developers cantwork directly on the computers, so programming meanta lot of manual work that led to many bugs. 1950 A remote connection wasinstalled in order to thedevelopers could workdirectly on the coputers. At the same time appearedthe idea of time-sharing, that allows share the processing power of one computer with multiple users. October 4th 1957 The first unmanned satellite,Sputnick 1, was sent into orditby the Soviet Union. During the Cold War As a result appeard an American fear of a missile gap. In order to secure America´s lead in technology the U.S. Goverment founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency February 1958 As knowledge was only transferred by people the DARPA planned a large-scale computer network, in order to accelerate knowledge transfer and avoid the doubling upof already existing reasearch. This network become the ARPANET, it development began in 1966. Then tree other concepts were developed A military networkby the RAND Corporation in America. The commercial network of the National Physical Laboratory in England The scientific network of Cyclades in France. Universities were cautious aboutsharing their computers, as a result small computers were put on front of the mainframe. This computer is called the Interface Message Proccessorthat control the network activities and served as interface for the mainframe. The mainframe was incharge of the initializationof programs and data files. The interconnection between IMPs that form a network was called IMP-subnet The NWG developed the Network Control Protocol, thenit was replaced by the TransmissionControl Protocol. The TCP was in charged of the verification of the file transfer. As a lot of users and file transferwere expected in order to avoidcongestion of lines the sent files were divided into smaller packets which were put together again at the receiver. So from this Network was taken the concept of "Packet Switching" 1962 American aircrafts discoveredmissiles in Cuba, which were able to reach USA. So it start a fear of an atomic conflict. At that time informationsystems had a centralized network architecture, so in order toavoid a breakdown during anattack a decentralized networkarchitecture was developed. So in case of loss of a node the network would still be operative. The communication still used to work through radio waves so in case of an atomic attack the ionspherewould be affected and the long-wave radio waves wouldnt workanymore. For this reasonthey had to use direct waves which dont havea longer range. So a better solution was the model of a distributed network. Thus long distances could be covered with a minimum of interference. Cyclades had a small budgetand few nodes. So it focus wason the communication with other networks, in the creation of the internet In the Cyclades Networkduring communication between sender and receiver the computersnot intervene, only serve as a transfer node. The Cyclades protocol went through all machines using a physicallayer that was implemented intothe hardware providing a direct connection with the receiver. From this Network was takenthe concept of the connectionbetween networks in order to resolve the problem of the incompatibilityof networks. Then, the phone companiesdeveloped the X.25 protocol that allow communication. DARPA´s TCP was used to connect the computers through gateways and the InternationalOrganization for Standardizationdesigned the OSI ReferenceModel. The Open System Interconnection standardize the network from its ends and devide the channel´s into separate layers. The TCP assimilated the preferencesof the OSI Reference Model Voilà the TCP/IP protocol appeard, which guaranteed thecompatibility between networks. February 28, 1990 The ARPANET hardware was removed, but the internet was up and runnig. Bibliography:-History of the Internet videoby Melih Bilgil.-DARPA <DARPA.MIL>-SBP <>-VectorStock <>
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