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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Compound Light Microscopes - A microscope in general is an optical instrument used by microbiologists and scientists to magnify and view very small objects. A compound microscope is a type of microscope that uses focused light and several lenses to magnify its specimen. It works similar to a telescope but is tasked with magnifying a small object placed close to the lens rather than magnifying large objects located far away such as a star. How it works 1. It has a light source and two thick convex lenses, one close to the eye called the ocular lens and the other close to the object calledthe objective lens. 2. As the object/specimen is placed under the objective lens and the light is switched on and directed to the object, the real image produced is significantly larger than the object and is inverted. This real image created by the objective lens now acts as the object for the optical lens 1. 3. The larger optical lens (also called eyepiece) acts as a secondary magnifying lens and magnifies the image produced by the objective lenseven more to produce a larger, virtual image that is inverted from the original object/specimen . 4. Now the image appears magnified. Formula for microscopic magnification:Magnification Total = Magnification of objective lens x Magnification of ocular lens m = m0me Who uses this object - Microscopes are used by a variety of individuals from Geo-scientists who use microscopes to study rocks and jewels to microbiologists and cellular pathologists who major in the study and research of organisms measuring from micrometers to nanometers. Purpose of Application - The microscopes main application today is to study and observe objects that are invisible to the human eye. Subjects such as microbiology, geology and cellular biology are predominantly the focus of using microscopes. Prior to its invention in the 16th century, microbiology and pathology was not very well understood by scientists in society who misunderstood many key concepts such as cell and germ theories. Cost of application - Compound Microscopes today are available in a range of costs from $20 for plastic ones used for recreation purposes, to $100 for commercial microscopes used in schools and homes and going up to $1500 for Industrial grade microscopes used by researchers and scientists in scientific institutions. - The microscope was invented by Zacharias Janssen in the 16th century who took several lenses (which were used as eyeglasses at the time) and put them into a tube only to find that the object on the other side was enlarged to an extent that no ordinary magnifying glass could. This sparked the discovery of the compound microscope (a microscope with more than one lens). - After the discovery of the microscope, milestones were achieved in cellular microbiology and pathology where discoveries of plant cells, human cells, germs and other developments to the microscope were made by scientists such as RobertHooke and Anton Van. History and Discoveries Other types of Microscopes - Scanning Electron Microscope: High end microscopes that use electron illumination to give 3D images of the object coated in gold. The images are usually in high resolution and magnification. Stereoscopes: Light illuminated microscopes that use lenses placed in different angles to produce 3D images. They are ideal for larger specimens but do not have as much resolution or magnification as an electron microscope.- Con-focal Microscopes: Digital microscope that uses laser light in wavelengths to scan the specimen that is placed on scanning mirrors and is then analyzed digitally using a computer. - Compound light microscope: Light Microscope that uses more than two lenses to magnify its specimen.- Simple microscope: microscope that uses only one lens to magnify its specimen. - Ocular Lens: The convex lens also known as the eyepiece in the compound microscope that isused to magnify the image produced by the objective lens.- Resolution: The closest that two objects can be seen by a microscopebefore they are no longer detected as separate objects.- Microscopic Magnification: The ability to view a specimen enlarged or magnified (calculated by multiplying the power of the ocular lens with the objective lens) .- Objective Lens: The convex lens located above the specimen tray in the light microscope that initialymagnifies the object.- Convergence : Bending light rays towards each other as done with a convex lens.- Condenser: Light system in a compound light microscope that focuses light onto a part of the specimen.-Specimen: The sample of an object (that can be both organic and inorganic) that is analyzed using a microscope.- Field of view: Area of a specimen that the microscope can see with an objective lens with a specific power Glossary Quick Facts - Only after finding the microscope did scientists know that water contained bacteria.- The earliest microscopes were called flea glasses as they were used to study small insects and fleas.- The smallest object observed by a light microscope till date was 500 nano-meters long.- The maximum magnification power of a compound microscope is 2500X.- The electron microscope was invented after the compound microscope to magnify atoms and produce even more magnified images of smaller specimens. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Algae specimen on a spot plate Typical compound light microscope Zacharias Janssen (1610-1624) Scanning electron microscope Plant cells Red Blood Cells E-Coli Bacteria Confocal Microscopes Stereo microscope Note: Numbers correlate with procedure Note: This occurs because the distance between the object and the objective lens is longer than the focal length (f). Note: This occurs because the distance between the objective lens and the ocular lens is shorter than the focal length.
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