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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 This is my BIOME, DECIDUOUS FOREST. Other animals that were native to this biome, such as elk and bison, have been hunted to near extinction. Migration and hibernation are two adaptations used by the animals in this biome. A wide variety of mammals, birds, insects, and reptiles can be found in a deciduous forest biome. Trees of this biome include both broadleaf, deciduous trees, such as maple, oak, hickory, and beech, and evergreens, such as hemlock, spruce, and fir. A deciduous forest typically has three to four, and sometimes five, layers of plant growth. Tall deciduous trees make up the top layer of plant growth, and they create a moderately dense forest canopy. Although the canopy is moderately dense, it does allow sunlight to reach the forest floor. This sunlight allows plants in the other layers to grow. The second layer of plant growth includes saplings and species of trees that are naturally shorter in stature. A third layer (or understory) would include shrubs. Forest herbs, such as wildflowers and berries, make up a fourth layer. During the spring, before the deciduous trees leaf out, these herbs bloom and grow quickly in order to take advantage of the sunlight. A fifth layer would include mosses and lichens that grow on tree trunks. The mid-latitude deciduous forest biome is located between the polar regions and the tropics. Because of its location, air masses from both the cold polar region and the warm tropical region contribute to the changes of climate in this biome. Precipitation ranges from 30 to 60 inches and is evenly distributed throughout the year. Sometimes the taiga and the temperate deciduous forest overlap. "Deciduous" means to fall off, or shed, seasonally. Just as the name implies, these deciduous trees shed their leaves each fall. Lying on the forest floor, the leaves decay. As the leaves decompose, the nutrients contained in the leaves are absorbed by the soil. For this reason, the soils of this biome tend to be very fertile. Because this biome has fertile soil and a long, 5 to 6 month, growing season, manydeciduous forests have been converted into agricultural regions. Temperate deciduous forests are found in the eastern part of the United States and Canada, most of Europe, and parts of China and Japan. Temperate deciduous forests have a great variety of plant species It is no coincidence that a good deal of the human population is found in areas that once supported temperate forests. The soils are rich and easily converted to agriculture. The climate is warmer than the boreal forest, yet not so warm as the tropics. One of the problems with the tropics is the prevalence of parasitic diseases found there, many transmitted by mosquitoes or other insects - and this is less of a problem in temperate areas where the onset of winter causes mosquito populations to crash. So, the biggest threat to temperate forests is once again development and agriculture. The image to the right is a satellite view of northwestern Ohio, showing Lake Erie and the heavily agricultural landscape of Ohio (actually, much of the land in this image was swamp before being drained). The impact of the agriculture is also seen in the plume of sediments flowing into the lake through Sandusky Bay (center of the photo) and from the Maumee River (off to the left of this image). Other threats to the forest come from logging; most of the trees here are hardwoods, which means they have a denser wood than most of the coniferous trees. It also means they may grow more slowly, which means more pressure to cut the trees to maintain volume at the sawmill.Acid Rain from coal-burning is another threat, as is global warming, which in particular may change rainfall patterns. Much of the human population lives in this biome. There is great diversity of life in this biome. In New Hampshire's temperate deciduous forests, you'll find many species of insects, spiders, slugs, frogs, turtles, and salamanders. You'll also find birds like broad-winged hawks, northern cardinals, snowy owls, and pileated woodpeckers in this biome. Mammals in New Hampshire's temperate deciduous forests include white-tailed deer, raccoons, opossums, porcupines, and red foxes. The average annual temperature in a deciduous forest is 50° F. The temperate deciduous forest occupies much of the middle of the Whittaker diagram, and to those of us who live here, it sure feels that way. Rapid changes from cold and dry to wet and warm or to any of the other corners of the climate envelope are often swift and dramatic. double click to changethis text! Drag a cornerto scale proportionally. Most deciduous forests have mild summers averaging about 70 °F. Summer months usually begin in early June and end in late August. Winter months don't begin until December. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing. Almost all of the world's deciduous forest is located by an ocean. The ocean and the wind are two big factors of why the temperature and climate change so much in this biome.Climate is a mix of temperature and precipitation. Deciduous forests have almost 14 inches of rain in the winter months and more than 18 inches of rain in the summer. In the spring, deciduous trees begin producing thin, broad, light-weight leaves. This type of leaf structure easily captures the sunlight needed for food production (photosynthesis). The broad leaves are great when temperatures are warm and there is plenty of sunlight. However, when temperatures are cold, the broad leaves expose too much surface area to water loss and tissue damage. To help prevent this damage from occurring, deciduous trees make internal and physical adaptations that are triggered by changes in the climate In deciduous forests there are five different zones. The first is The Tree Stratum zone, this zone contains trees like oak, beech, maple, chestnut hickory, basswood, linden, walnut, and sweet gum trees. This zone is 60-100 feet. The small tree and sapling zone is second and it has young and short trees. The three zone is the Shrub zone or the Fungi zone Some are Rhodoendrons, Azaleas, Mountain Laurel and Huckleberries. The fourth is the Herd zone it has short plants like HERBAL plants. the last one is the Ground it has Lichen, Club Mosses, and Ture Mosses. Mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, animals and more Plants. "Deciduous" means to fall off, or shed, seasonally. Seasons Climate MOSS Many of the trees in the temperate deciduous forests contained sap, which they would use to keep they roots from freezing in the cold. The largest tree in the world can be found in the United States in California at 275 feet tall and 95 around. The temperate deciduous forest gets its name because the temperatures are temperate meaning they are not extreme. Most animals in this biome are camouflaged with the ground so they blend in and can escape predators. Animals of this biome have to be extremely adaptive to deal with the ever changing seasons.The trees provide shelter, food, and also water for animals of this biome. The growing season of the temperate deciduous forest lasts about six month. Because there are deciduous trees here, the soil is very fertile and rich with nutrients. PICTURE MUSEUM
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