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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 History of Apartheid 1912 - Native National Congress founded, later renamed the African National Congress (ANC).1913 - Land Act introduced to prevent blacks, except those living in Cape Province, from buying land outside reserves1914 - National Party founded.1918 - Secret Broederbond (brotherhood) established to advance the Afrikaner cause.1919 - South West Africa (Namibia) comes under South African administration.1934 - The Union of South Africa parliament enacts the Status of the Union Act, which declares the country to be "a sovereign independent state". The move followed on from Britain's passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which removed the last vestiges of British legal authority over South Africa.1948 - Policy of apartheid (separateness) adopted when National Party (NP) takes power.1950 - Population classified by race. Group Areas Act passed to segregate blacks and whites. Communist Party banned. ANC responds with campaign of civil disobedience, led by Nelson Mandela.1960 - Seventy black demonstrators killed at Sharpeville. ANC banned.1960s - International pressure against government begins, South Africa excluded from Olympic Games.1961 - South Africa declared a republic, leaves the Commonwealth. Mandela heads ANC's new military wing, which launches sabotage campaign.1964 - ANC leader Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment.1966 September - Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd assassinated.1970s - More than 3 million people forcibly resettled in black 'homelands'.1976 - More than 600 killed in clashes between black protesters and security forces during uprising which starts in Soweto.1976: Black anger boils overSouth African street protestsPeople rallied against the white government, which hit back violently1989 - FW de Klerk replaces PW Botha as president, meets Mandela. Public facilities desegregated. Many ANC activists freed.1990 - ANC unbanned, Mandela released after 27 years in prison. Namibia becomes independent.1991 - Start of multi-party talks. De Klerk repeals remaining apartheid laws, international sanctions lifted. Major fighting between ANC and Zulu Inkatha movement.1993 - Agreement on interim constitution.1994 April - ANC wins first non-racial elections. Mandela becomes president, Government of National Unity formed, Commonwealth membership restored, remaining sanctions lifted. South Africa takes seat in UN General Assembly after 20-year absence.
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