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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 double click on textto edit or change TEXT THE ANCHORING EFFECT Anchoring (focalism) is a tendency to refer to or rely too much on a single specific fact or opinion articulated previously. ANCHORS IN NEGOTIATIONS: BATNA Discussing critical figures, both higher and lower than the most desirable outcome, in advance Speaking out the figures first instead of taking a wait-and-see attitude THE BIAS BLIND SPOT A tendency to believe one's own judgments are more objective and less susceptible to biasesthan the judgments of other people.Thinking the facts are true if theyre consistent with one's opinions. AVOID THE CIRCLE OF: *BATNA stands for the Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement Believing in facts consistent only with your opinions and ignoring the ones contradicting them Risking to lock yourself in a circle of biased opinions because of rejecting the fact you yourself are biased Encouraging excess self-confidence THE ILLUSORY TRUTH EFFECT THE PEAK-END BIAS TV commercials Political campaigns A tendency to believe facts heard of permanently or at least frequently enough. A tendency to remember experiences only at their most memorable moments (either pleasant or not) as well as the final experiences. A tendency to remember the overall impression better than the duration of the event Preferring experiences with a tendency of positive moments to increase, even if the duration of negative experience will have to be longer Duration Neglect 1 Temporal Monotonicity 2 People are most likely to believe the message after hearing it WHEN ENOUGH IS ENOUGH? 3 to 5 times *It's better not to reiterate weak arguments to a competent, critical audience - they'll spot it in an instance THE FREQUENCY ILLUSION A tendency to believe facts heard of permanently or at least frequently enough *Frequency illusion = Baader-Meinhof phenomenon patterns It happens because people are able to recognize How Does It Work? BUT SELECTIVE ATTENTION The truth is they had already been there, notwithstanding our knowledge of it! We didn't know it before, therefore, didn't notice 5 COGNITIVE BIASES THAT THREATEN DECISION-MAKING Copyright 2015 Yaware THAT'S WHY ENCOURAGE ACTIVE LEARNING! *EMOTIONS MATTER - in the course of time we re-assess our past experiences 1 2 From the thousands things we see every day we remember only the ones which for one reason or another stand out from the rest Public figure opinion
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