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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 A History Education Of Knowledge is Power 1819 - 2001 Children were immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes such as haircuts, and were forbidden to speak their native languages. Their traditional names were replaced bynew European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh,especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. Native American 1819 -Mission Schools 1879 Residential Government Schools 1934 The Indian New Deal 1968 Tribal Colleges 1969 'A National Tragedy' 1990 Language Revitalization Act 2001 No Child Left Behind Act American Indian boarding schools were boarding schools established in NorthAmerica, to educate NativeAmerican children and youthsaccording to Euro-American standards.They were first established by Christian missionaries of various denominations. Coming a Long Way... The Indian New Deal, was a U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans. These included actions that contributed to a return to local self-governmenton a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Indians the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included "provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations." (1). The United States Senate created a special Subcommittee on Indian Education. Senator Robert F. Kennedy chaired the committee, which held hearings and authorized studies of educational programs for Native Americans.The study concluded that national policies for educating American Indians are a failure of major proportions.(3). The report blamed efforts to force Indian children to accept cultural values other than their own as one of the major flaws in Indian education and as a leading cause of high dropout rates.The report's findings helped promote passage of the Indian Education Act of 1972. Most tribal colleges are located on or near Indian reservations and provide access to post-secondary education, "accredited degrees, and vocational training" for both Indian and non-Indian students(2). The first was establishedin 1968 by the Navajo Nation on their reservation in Arizona. Several other tribal colleges were establishedin the 1970's and enrollment has steadily increased. The "fundamental basis of the policy's declaration" was that the United States "declares to preserve, protect and promote the rights and freedoms of Native Americans to use practice and develop Native American Languages"(4).In addition, to "fully recognize the right of Indian Tribes and other Native American governing bodies, States, territories, and possessions of the United States to take action on, and give official status to their Native American languages for the purpose of conducting their own business" (4). A United States Act of Congress that requires states to develop assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states must give these assessments to all students at select grade levels. "NCLB requires some Native American students to take standardized tests in English. In other cases, the students could be legally tested in their native language, except that the state has not paid to have the test translated.."(5).
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