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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Personal Finance The Secession Crisis Lincoln stated that since the Union was older than the constitution, no state could leave it and secession was an insurrection. When Lincoln became president, South Carolina voted to secede in December of 1860 and was soon followed by six other states. After the North's defeat at Fort Sumter, Lincoln began mobilizing for war. Opposing sides: The North had advantages in materials, industry, and a better transportation system. The South on the other hand had full support for the war from their population, and they were fighting a defensive war on their own land. Mobilization of the... North South Government financed the war through taxes, paper currency, and borrowing loans. To increase the number of men in the Union Army, the Government passed a national draft law in 3/1863 1/1/1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation as a war measure, and it freed all slaves in only the rebellious states (didn't abolish slavery). North used Emancipation as the central war aim. Confederate Government created their own constitution that was very similar to the U.S. constitution, but it put more power into the individual states, authorized slavery, and made abolitionism impossible. To finance the war, the South requested funds from state governments that issued bonds, issued paper money, and created an income tax in 1863 (raised little revenue) To raise the Confederate Army, they called for volunteers. The North's capture of Confederatelands led to shortages of man power. Because of the shortages the draft widened, but was still ineffective. Strategy and Diplomacy Lincoln was a successful commander in chief for the union because he realized he had material and population advantages. The Commanders President Davis controlled the southern command. He named General Robert E. Lee the principal military adviser in 1862. Sea power The Union had an extreme advantage in naval power. They used it to enforce a blockade against the south which kept foreign ships out of confederate ports. To try and break the blockade the South made new weapons,one of them known as the ironclad warship. The South sent the ironclad Merrimac (Virginia) on March 8, 1862 to attack union ships at nearby Hampton Roads. The North however started to build ironclads of their own and sent the Monitor to battle. Neither vessel sank, but the Monitor put an end tothe Merrimac's raids and preserved the blockade. Europe and the Disunited States King Cotton Diplomacy failed and didn't work like the south suspected. No European nation diplomatically recognized the Confederacy as a separate nation because they didn't want to antagonize the United States unless the Confederacy seemed likely to win. Judith P Benjamin was the Confederate secretary of state and for the Union it was William Seward. The American West and the War Majority of the states and territories in the West remained loyal to the Union except Texas. Fighting occurred between Unionists and Secessionists in Kansas and Missouri. Confederate Quantrill organized guerrilla fighters and terrorized the Kansas-Missouri border. They were an extremely murderous andviolent group. Union supporters on the other hand created a group known as Jayhawks who did much of the same acts as the guerrilla group. The Course of Battle Both the North and the South beganusing repeating weapons such as Colt's (1835) repeating revolver and Winchester's (1660) rifle along with improved artillary and cannons. The Technology of Battle The railroad became important during the war where millions of soldiers and tons of supplies were mobilized. The telegraph lines were limited but it allowed commanders to communicate during battle. A compromise proposed by Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky proposedconstitutional ammendments with permanent slavery in slave states, and fugitive slaves returned. At heart it was a plan to reinstitute the Missouri Compromise Line for Western lands. Opening Battle The Battle of Bull Run: On July 21, 1861 this battle of the Civil War occurred. The Union almost defeated the southerners, but Confederate troops began a counterattack. Union troops were exhausted from the fighting and retreated leading to a Confederate victory. Shiloh: Union victory led by General Grant on April 6-7 and resulted in the Union winning control of the Mississippi River as far south as Memphis. 1862 General George McClellan was known as being very controversial because he was reluctant in putting his troops into battle. He planned something known as The Peninsula Campaign which purpose was to to take a roundabout route to capture the Confederate capitol of Richmond. This was stopped when Confederate troops under "Stonewall" Jackson began a rapid march north and in the Valley campaign of May 4th-June 9th defeated two separate Union troops. Antietam: Fought on September 17th, 1862 and it was the first important battle on Union soil. The battle ended in a draw, but gave Lincoln the opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. 1863: Year of Decision Vicksburg: In July the Confederate troops surrendered to Grant and gave the Union entire control of the Mississippi and split the Confederacy into two. Gettysburg: Attack on Pennsylvania led by General Robert E. Lee. Defeated and they retreated on July 4th. A turning point in the war in that Confederate forces were never going to be able to threaten Northern territory. Chattanooga: Union victory that led to their control of the Tennessee River and cut off eleven southern states from the Confederacy. The Last Stage: 1864-1865 Grant's Strategy: Potomac Army would march towards Richmond and force Lee into a decisive battle while the western army would head towards Atlanta and destroy remaining confederate forces farther south. On April 9th, 1865 Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse and nine days later Johnson surrendered to Sherman in North Carolina. The war was now over. Impact of North's Victory: Strengthened the North's economy and weakened the South's. Important victory to African Americans because the war produced the thirteenth amendment which abolished slavery.