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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 WE NEED THINK/BUILD STRATEGICALLY *Figure taken from UNISDR, 2002, p. 6 WE NEED TO ADAPT "Floods cause more damage worldwide to human life and property than any other type of natural disaster." (Zurich Insurance, 2014, p.1) RESPONSE & RECOVERY ARE NOT ENOUGH "Flooding is the single most destructive typeof natural disaster that strikes humans & their livelihoods around the world."(UNISDR, 2002, p. 4) Major World Floods Reducing Vulnerability & Enhancing Flood Resilience through Adaptive Architecture 2013 Southern AB floods Vulnerability/Resilience/Adaptation Water-resistant materials Adaptive Residential Housing Elevated living spaces 2013 European floods 2014 Southeast Europe floods 2013 Jakarta flood 1998 Hurricane Mitch 2005 Hurricane Katrina 2013 Typhoon Haiyan 2012 Superstorm Sandy 1992 Hurricane Andrew Disasters due to flooding are on the rise. "Housing is usually the element that is most extensively damaged or lost, and often represents the greatest share of loss in the total impact of a disaster on the national economy." A critical factor in building resilience in social-ecological systemsis learning to live with change and uncertainty. Vulnerability, Resilience, and Adaptation are inter-related concepts Vulnerability includes: 1. Exposure; 2. Sensitivity to stress; and3. Capacity to adapt. Resilience "the ability of a system to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover from the effects of a hazardous event in a timely & efficient manner" (Adger, 2006, p. 270) (IPCC, 2012, as cited in Lei et al., 2013, p. 613) When building new residential homes a holistic approach is required, that considers flood risk far into the future. Policy makers need to implement strong land use policies which prevent settlement in flood prone locations, and building code policies that require builders to utilize water-resistant material, and home design with elevated living spaces. Adaptation "the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities" (IPCC, 2012, as cited in Lei et al., 2013, p. 615). Adaptation Vulnerability Resiliency New buildings at risk of flooding should use NFPI Class 5 materials, which are highly resistant to floodwater damage, including damage by moving water. (FEMA, 2008, p. 4) "Actions designed to help communities mitigate disasters in a sustainable fashion should strengthen overall sustainability & resiliency to othersocial, economic & environmental problems & vice versa." (Mileti, 1999, pp. 29-30) Benefits of designing dwellings above the Base Flood Elevation (BFE) include: 1. reduced potential for building damage; 2. reduced flood insurance premiums; 3. reduction in time spent displaced from home post-flood; 4. reduced job losses; 5. retention of community tax base6. reduction of contamination from floodwater (FEMA, 2013) Individuals/Communities can reduce their vulnerability & improve their resilience to flooding through adaptation (Lei et al., 2013, p. 610) (Folke et al., 2003, as cited in Berkes, 2007, p. 287) (Lyons, 2009, as cited in Ahmed, 2011, p. 149) Improved Building Code Policies
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