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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Digestive systemOrgans: Alimentary Canal- Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Rectum, SphincterAccesory/structures- Salivary Glands, Teeth, Tongue, Pancreas, Liver, Gall Bladder, Rugae, Villi, Function: Breaksdown ingested food to particles to small enough to be absorbed by the bloodProcesses- Ingestion, Propulsion, Mechanical Digestion, Chemical Digestion, Absorption, Defecation. Integumentary SystemFunction: protection from mechanical, chemical, UV, and thermal damage. Also maintains homeostasis through perspiration, synthesis of Vitamin D, and Waterproofing with KeratinStructures- Dermis(hide), Epidermis(overcoat, pushes up through layers every 25-45 days, Hypodermis/Subcutaneous- provides insulation, cushioning, shock absorption, and aids skin anchoring to the bodyHistology: Hypodermis/ Subcutaneous- Adipose and areolar tissue Dermis- Dense connective tissue, collagen, and elastic fibersEpidermis- stratified squamous epitheliumLevels of organization- Epithelial cell, epithelial tissue, nerve endings.Transport Mechanism- Nerve ends respond to touch and temperature, communicating to the brain. Respiratory SystemStructure- mouth, nose, trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi bronchioles, alveloiFunction- supply blood w/ O2in order for the blood to deliver to other organs and tissuesLevels of organization- Cells-Epithelial cells, nerve cells, muscle cellsTissues- Epithelial tissues, nerve tissuesconnective tissues, muscle tissuesOrgan- Nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pharynx, epiglottis, alveoli, diaphragmHIstology- Hyaline cartilage, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial,goblet cells, simple squamous epithelial. Circulatory system: BloodFunction- carry oxygen and necessary nutrients to tissues and organs.Histology- Composed of Red Blood cells (mainly carries the oxygen and nutrients throughout the body and White Blood cells (fights viruses and other other foreign bodies.Structure- composed of a 1000:1 RBC:WBC with plasma, and platelets to prevent blood clots.Transportation mechanism- Blood pressure pushes blood cells through out arteries and veins to be transported throughout the body. Levels of Organization & TransportStructure- Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, OrganismFunction- to maintain a state of bodyequilibrium or stable internal environmentin the body.Transport Mechanisms- Positive feed back-Stimulus: produceschange in variable, change detected by receptor, input info sent along the afferent pathway, output: information sent along efferent pathway, response of effector feeds back to influence homeostasis. Helps pump blood throughoutthe whole body to giveorgans and tissues the necessary nutrients forgrowth and health Pulls nutrients from substancesand foods that are taken in to feed the body with the proper nutrition. Protects the body from externalfactors, allowing the internal processesto run safely and smoothly withoutany interruptions. brings needed nutrients and oxygento organs and tissues all over the body and help fight viruses. Maintains homeostasis througha series of reaction processes like positive and negative feedbackto keep the body stable. Helps keep Homeostasis by filteringtoxins out of the body. Provide oxygen to the body and excrete carbon dioxide from the body. Urinary System: Structure: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,urethraFunction: Elimination of waste: nitrogenous waste toxins drugs. Regulation of homeostasis: water balance, electrolytesHistology: Simplecuboidal epithelium (kidney), Smooth Muscle (Ureters+Bladder), transitional(ureters+Badders+Urethra)Transport Mechanisms: Filtration (nonselective passive process, water+solutes smaller than proteins, leaves via renal tubule). Reabsorption (proximal convoluted tubule, perituibular capillaries reabsorb several materials). Secretion (materoals move from peritubular capillaries, leaves the renal tubule to ureter).Nephron -structural + functional unit of kidney-forms urine-2 main structures (glomerolus,Renal Tubule). removes metabolioc waste to the excretory organsfor disposal by the pumping of bloodthrough arteries and veins. Waste matter discharged from the bowels after food has been digested. Excreted throughthe anus. disposes of toxins (carbon dioxide) throughexhales (relaxation of thediaphragm) removes waste (salt,etc.) through perspiration of the skin. brings oxygen to the red blood cells so theycan travel throughout the body to deliver nutrients, carries the nutrientsneeded for organs and tissues. skin absorbs Vitamin-D from thesun which promotes intestinalabsorption and metabolism of calcium peritublar cappilaries reabsorbseveral materials, such as glucose, amino acids, and ions Circulatory system: CardioFunction: Transportaion of Oxygen and carbon Dioxide: Removal of waste and delivery of nutrients and hormonesHistology of Cardiac Muscle:A) Involuntary B) Uninucleate C) Striations D) Intercalated Disks E) Bifuracalations (branching of cells)Layers of the Heart: -Pericardium (outer layer) -Myocardium (middle/thickest layer) -Endocardium (inner layer)Transportation: veins- carry blood back to heart (thinner walls). Arteries- Carry blood away from hear (thicker walls because of high pressure).Blood circulation: Blood from systemic circuit --> Venae Cavae and coronary sinus --> Right Atrium (tricuspid valve) --> Right Ventricle(pulmonary valve) --> Pulmonary trunk --> Pulmonary arteries--> Areolar Cappilaries (lungs)--> Pulmonary veins--> Left Atrium (mitral valve)--> Left venticle (aortic valve)--> Aorta--> Blood to systemic citcut substances are broken downinto nutrients that are absorbed by the blood stream absorbs nutrients fromfood to be given to the blood brings oxygen to redblood cells so they cantransport nutrients. filters the blood throughthe kidneys so that the correct nutrientsare spread throughout the body Keeps organs and tissuesnutritioned spreads oxygen throughout the body using the heart to push it through. carries oxygen through theblood stream to deliver toorgans and tissues. system primary homeostasis action Digestive system Circulatory system: Cardio Circulatory system: Blood Urinary system Integumentary System Respiratory system
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