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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Semantics Semantics Antonymy : The lexical relation in which words have opposite meanings. The lexical relation in which themeaning of one word is included in the meaning of another is called Idioms: A group of words in a fixed order that has particular meaning different from the meaning of each word understood on its own. good as gold in for a penny, in for a pound spill the beans a blind alley be in thedoghouse. give in Todd,L(1995). An Introduction to linguistics. Esssex: Longman Group Limited. Yule,G(2010).The study of language. Polysemy: the lexical relation in which a word has several related meanings.In a dictionary we will find the central meaning first then the most closely related ones and it ends with the metaphorical meaning.There are some problems that comes with having several meanings :-it is not always easy to decide when a meaning has become so different from its original meaning that it deserves to be treated like a new word.-it is not always easy to determine whether we are dealing with polysemy or homonymy which is several words with the same form.To solve these problems, linguists have decided to :-refer to etymology.-seek the core of meaning.polysemy is found in prefixes as well as full words.For example: the prefix Un . It prefixes verbs like undo, nouns like unking and adjectives like untrue. Sense Relations: Is therea solution?? Synonymy : The lexical relation in which two or more words have very closely related meanings. Star 1 2 The closest we get to absolute synonymy in :-Regional differences.UK UStrousers pants-Stylistic differences.smell and odour.-Emotive differences.conceal and hide. The choice of one word rather than itssynonym can have an affect on the words that can co-occur with it . 3 synonymy Antonymy Polysemy Implicitly graded antonyms:like: young and old/ The larger item of the pair isthe unmarked or neutral member and it can be used without beingbiased or prejudging the matter. Complementarity: refers tothe existence of pairs like male and female.The denial of one item implies theassertion of the other. besides being called complementaryitems, they are also calledincompatible. Converseness: is the relation that holdsbetween tworelated pairs: buy and selland occasionally thesame verb can be used conversely: John married MaryMary married John Sometimes in English we can find converse nouns:Teacher/pupil 4 Hyponymy The three types of oppositeness are: It is also called implicit inclusion. The implicational nature ofhyponymy is UNILATERAL One of its most useful features is that it allows us to be as general or as specific as a particular linguistic occasion warrants. 5 Idioms Superordinate Co-hyponyms (Taxonomies) They involve the non-literal use of language and they are categories as follows: There is a tendency for the more transparent idioms to allow some change:run up a bill and run up an enormous billbut:kick the bucket and not kick the enormous billAnd there's a marked tendency for a few colors- black, blue, green, red and white to be used idiomatically:blackmail a blue moon
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