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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Vitamin A plays a key role in transcription of DNA, which allows cells to build proteins and to differentiate to form new cells. 1. Vitamin A (in retinoic acid form) enters the cell and binds with cellular retinoid-binding protein. 2. In order to enter the nucleus, Vitamin A is released from the protein. 3. In the nucleus Vitamin A binds with nuclear-retinoid receptors (RAR and RXR). This creates a hormone receptor complex. 4. This complex interacts with a response element on DNA called retinoic acid response element (RARE). 5. This activates gene transcription by stimulating mRNA. Transcription allows genes to be expressed as proteins (gene expression). Gene expression directs cell differentiation, a process through which stem cells differentiate into cells designed to carry out a specific function. A Audra Kramer, Meghan Murphy, & Julianne Vasilak Vitamin A Vision Cycle In the 2012 Boston Marathon, countries of residence wererepresented in the race. Cell Differentiation Nutrient Overview A A Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin.Vitamin A is found in many different formsTwo major types of Vitamin A are Carotenoids and Retinoids. Retinoids are more bioavailable and found in animal products. Carotenoids are less bioavailable and are found in plant products.Carotenoids must be activated to Function as Vitamin A.General Function:Vitamin A is necessary for many biological functions.It is needed for night and color vision. Also for gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation , immune function. It helps with acne treatment,treat Vitamin A deficiencies, and is helpful for some types of anemia.Vitamin A is also believed to have anti- cancer , macular degeneration, cardiovascular disease benefits.Vitamin A deficiency and toxicity: A deficiency in Vitamin A leads to problems in rapidly dividing cells. Symtoms include Bitots Material and Perifollicular Hyperkeratosis.Retinoids can befatal at high doses (13,000 x RDA). 100 x RDA can lead to GI upset, headache , blurred vision,permanent liver damage. 3 x RDA can cause birth defects. The recommended intake of Vitamin A RDA intake is 900 RAE for men and 700 RAE for women. -Vitamin A (as retinal) is needed in the retina of the eye to turn visual light into nerve signals to the brain. -Not all retinal is used in each cycle. Vitamin A pools are stored in the eye and depleted pools can cause dark adaptation or night blindness.
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