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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Semantics The study of meaning that is used for understanding human expression through language. علم يبحث في فهم الدلالة اللغوية على صعيد المفردات والتراكيب WHAT DO WE MEAN BY SEMANTICS ??!! WHAT DOSE SEMANTICS DEAL WITH ??!! It deals with many areas of interest: Polysemy One word with several meanings Homonymy كلمة واحدة ولها عدة معاني OR Synonymy The relationship between wordsin which they share partial meaningwith free variation in most context 1st 2nd عدة كلمات تتشارك في جزء من المعنى وتختلف استخداماتها على حسب سياق الجملة عدة كلمات لها نفس الشكل Several words with the same form مثل :"السائل "الذي يسأل"،السائل "الذي يسيل وغيرها من الكلمات for example : "STAR"1- celestial body.2- principal actor or actressin a cpmoany. synonyms can belong to diffrent dilects: British usage autumn US usage fall صديق , رفيق, رحيب Antonymy 3rd The sense relation involving oppositeness of meaning التضاد في معاني الكلمات there is three types of "oppositeness": 1- implicitly graded antonyms التضاد المتدرج مثل :كبير , اكبر for example : Big , Bigger 2-Complementarity it is characteristics of such pairs that the denial of one implies the assertion of the other "male,female" التضاد الحاد :هو الذي يفصل بين اللفظين بحسم دون تصورتدرجات فيما بينهما مثل : ذكر,انثى 3- Converseness the converse relationship between such related pairs of a sentence : john sold it for me. التضاد العكس محمد باعه لي I bought it from me اشتريته لنفسي Hyponymy 4th -the relationship between the more general terms (hypernyms) - the more specific instances of it (hyponyms) الاسم الدال على معنى أخص من المعنى الأعم الذي يدل عليه اسم آخر، Superordinate A word whose meaning includes the meaningof one or more other words co-hyponmys Co-hyponyms are often but not always be related to one another by the relation of incompatibility 5th Idioms A group of words whose meaning cannot be explained in termsof the habitual meaning that make up the piece of language التعبير الاصطلاحي عبارة لا يفهم معناها الكلي بمجرد فهم معاني مفرداتها they are best avoided in formal context and they can rarely betranslated from one language to another يفضل تجنبها في المحادثة الرسميةونادراً ما تترجم من لغة الى اخرى Created by :ALBandary ALTaweelFelwah ALTaweel References:-AN INTRODUCTION TOLINGUISTICS by Loreto Todd-اسم_مشمول-تعبير_اصطلاحي- MEANING is not an easy concept to deal withpartly because we deal with abstraction,mobility,different opinions and distinctions essential in one language but not in another. Summary
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