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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Trophozoite Phase (CDC, 2013) Katie Stewart metronidazole (MZN), tinidazole, epigastric pain Cyst Phase (CDC, 2013) Giardia Lamblia (Gardner and Hill, 2001) G. lamblia is found primarily in mammals including humans, cats and dogs. (Gardner and Hill, 2001) Symptoms of infection include Furthermore, existing antimicrobial therapiesare not always effective, and drug resistance to all available drugs has been demonstrated in the laboratory (Petri, 2003). Current treatment consists of the use of nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., However, most of the therapeutically used anti-giardial drugs, including MNZ, cause severe side effects and are not well tolerated by many patients. (Amer et al., 2014) Giardia has a simple life cycle in which it alters betweentwo morphologically and biochemically distinct forms: themotile trophozoites that cause disease by colonizing theupper small intestine of a variety of vertebrates, andthe environmentally resistant and highly infective cysts(Lujan et al., 1997). As a result of the ineffective antibiotic therapies, research has been carried out to analyse theeffectiveness of bacteriocins against G. Lamblia. a binucleated, flagellated protozoan parasite, is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea and intestinal upset worldwide (Adam, 2001) and ornidazole. nausea After ingestion of contaminated water or food, cysts undergo excystation, and the released trophozoites colonise the upper small intestine of the host (Adam, 2001). Alternatives to Antibiotics: Bacteriocins Alternatives to Antibiotics: Bacteriocins "The demonstrated giardiacidal effect of L.acidophilus bacteriocin was ultrastructuralyverified. SEM analysis of G.lamblia trophozoites collected from mice treated with L.acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days showed that they exhibited flagellar loss, marked roughness and irregularity of cell membrane, with the surface papillar scattering, corruption of dorsal shield, besides fragmentation of the adhesive disc in the majority of the trophozoites; a finding which would reasonably justify the noticeable reduction of the in vitro trophozoites adherence by this bacteriocin, since the cupping discs are responsible for the attachment of Giardia trophozoites to the host." (Amer et al., 2014)Oral bacteriocin for five days was sufficient to induce massive parasite reduction. Bacteriocin holds great promise as an alternative therapy for giardiasis. (Amer at al., 2014) Bacteriocins are prokaryotic proteins or peptides with antimicrobial activity. Most of them exhibit a broad spectrum of activity, inhibiting micro-organisms belonging to different genera and species, including many bacterial pathogens which cause human, animal or plant infections.(Bastos et al., 2014) The World Health Organization has reported that Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites,viruses and fungi. The report makes a clear case that resistanceto common bacteria has reached alarming levels in many parts of the worldand that in some settings, few, if any, of the available treatments optionsremain effective for common infections. (WHO, 2014) diarrhea steatorrhea Bacteriocins are found to be effective against many important human pathogens. Although they target a narrow range of bacteria, their major advantage is that they can act without affecting much of the natural microbiota of the body, when compared to other antibiotics. (Nigam et al., 2014)
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