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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THERE'S SOMETHING IN THE WATER THERE'S SOMETHING IN THE WATER Trophozoite Phase (CDC, 2013) Katie Stewart metronidazole (MZN), and ornidazole. tinidazole, diarrhea nausea epigastric pain Cyst Phase (CDC, 2013) a binucleated, flagellated protozoan parasite, is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea and intestinal upset worldwide (Adam, 2001) Giardia Lamblia (Gardner and Hill, 2001) G. lamblia is found primarily in mammals including humans, cats and dogs. (Gardner and Hill, 2001) Symptoms of infection include steatorrhea Furthermore, existing antimicrobial therapies are not always effective, and drug resistance to all available drugs has been demonstratedin the laboratory (Petri, 2003). The greatest clinical treatment experienceis with the nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., As a result of the ineffective antibiotic therapies, research has been carried out to analyse theeffectiveness of bacteriocin against G. Lamblia."The demonstrated giardiacidaleffect of L.acidophilus bacteriocin was ultrastructuralyverified. SEM analysis of G.lamblia trophozoites collected from mice treated with L.acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days showed that they exhibited flagellar loss, marked roughness and irregularity of cell membrane, with the surface papillar scattering, corruption of dorsal shield, besides fragmentation of the adhesive disc in the majority of the trophozoites; a finding which would reasonably justify the noticeable reduction of the in vitro trophozoites adherence by this bacteriocin, since the cupping discs are responsible for the attachment of Giardia trophozoites to the host." (Amer et al., 2014) However, most of the therapeutically used anti-giardial drugs, including MNZ, cause severe side effects and are not well tolerated by many patients. (Amer et al., 2014) Giardia has a simple life cycle in which it alters betweentwo morphologically and biochemically distinct forms: themotile trophozoites that cause disease by colonizing theupper small intestine of a variety of vertebrates, andthe environmentally resistant and highly infective cysts(Lujan et al., 1997). Giardia lamblia infections are associated with antigenic variation of the parasite, which is generated by a continuous change of the variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs). (Bienz et al., 2001) After ingestion of contaminated water or food, cysts undergo excystation, and the released trophozoites colonise the upper small intestine of the host (Adam, 2001).
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