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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THERE'S SOMETHING IN THE WATER THERE'S SOMETHING IN THE WATER Trophozoite Phase (CDC, 2013) Trophozoites exhibit antigenic variation of an extensive repertoire of cysteine-rich variant-specific surface proteins. Expression is allele specific, and changes in expression from one vsp gene to another have not been associated with sequence alterations or gene rearrangements.The Giardia genome project promises to greatly increase our understanding of this interesting and enigmatic organism. Giardia has a simple life cycle in which it alters betweentwo morphologically and biochemically distinct forms: themotile trophozoites that cause disease by colonizing theupper small intestine of a variety of vertebrates, andthe environmentally resistant and highly infective cysts(Lujan et al., 1997). steatorrhea Katie Stewart Giardia lamblia infections are associated with antigenic variation of the parasite, which is generated by a continuous change of the variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs). (Bienz, 2001) The greatest clinical treatment experience is with the nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., metronidazole, and ornidazole. tinidazole, diarrhea nausea epigastric pain After ingestion of contaminated water or food, cysts undergo excystation, and the released trophozoites colonise the upper small intestine of the host (Adam, 2001). Cyst Phase (CDC, 2013) Symptoms of infection include a binucleated, flagellated protozoan parasite, is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea and intestinal upset worldwide (Adam, 2001) Giardia Lamblia (Gardner, 2001) However, most of the therapeutically used anti-giardial drugs, including MNZ, cause severe side effects and are not well tolerated by many patients. (Amer et al., 2014)
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