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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Breaking Bread: The Science of Bread BREAD Butter Yeast Gluten and Starch Flour Baking Powder Chemical Leavening Agents Water Eggs Baking Soda Salt Flour contains a compound called gluten. This gluten forms associations with the water molecules and each other. Kneading helps the glutenin protein molecules form aninterconnected gluten network and makes the dough elastic. Water allows gluten network toform and dilutes it Yeast is a type of fungi that eats sugar and produces carbon dioxide and alcohol as a result, the former of which can help dough expand, creating softer, fluffier bread. Butter has the effect of making dough tenderized as it weakensthe gluten network.Example: crossaints Salt has the ability to tighten the gluten network and makingthe dough more elastic asthe Na+ and Cl- ions binds thenetworks closer. The protein in eggs coagulateduring cooking, while its fats weaken the gluten network. The emulsifiers stabilize bubbles and starch. Starch fills the gluten networkand absorbs water during cooking. This tenderizes thedough and sets the structureduring baking BREAKING BREAD IS UNIVERSAL SIGN OF PEACE Pumpernickle means devils fart in the Westphalia dialect of German. As with yeast. these chemical leavening agents producecarbon dioxide due to the presence of the carbonateion in the baking soda/powder DID YOU KNOW? Stale bread can be refreshed by reheating it. Some Breads Made With BakingSoda/Powder:American BiscuitsBanana BreadCornbreadPancakes Olivia Bispott and Howard LyESEM: Chemistry of Cooking
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