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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Free Exercise FirstAmendment The Case Name: Lemon V. Kutzman. Year: March 3, 1971-June 28, 1971Constitutional Issue:-The case began because the state of Pennsylvania passed a law that allowed the local government to use money to fund educational programs that taught religious-based lessons, activities and studies.-Alton Lemon filed the case against David Kurtzman who was the acting Superintendent of the Department of Public Instruction in the State of Pennsylvania. Lemons main argument was that the state law violated the Constitution which does not allow religion from benefiting from state laws. This case went all the way to the Supreme Court. -As a result, to the Lemon v. Kurtzman case was the creation of the Lemon Test. The test ensures that the general populations interests take priority within public institutions and settings, as well as, prohibiting the Federal Government from becoming overly religious or involved with a particular religious institution. Case Name: Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah. Year: November 4, 1992- June 11, 1993Constitutional Issue:-The Church of the Lukumi-Babalu Aye was a Florida not-for-profit organization that practiced the Santeria religion. Santeria involves the sacrifice of animals for rituals. -The Church leased land in the City of Hialeah, Florida, and announced plans to build a complex that included a house of worship, a school, a cultural center, and a museum. -The Hialeah community did not react well. The community and the city councils held an emergency public session and passed several resolutions and ordinances aimed at preventing religious animal sacrifice. Prohibiting animal sacrifices.-The Church filed an action in a federal district court, alleging that the laws violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. The district court ruled for the City, concluding that the laws' effect on religious practice was incidental to the purposes of protecting public health and welfare. The Court of Appeals affirmed.-The issue was whether the city laws directed at animal sacrifice as part of the Santeria religion violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment? And the ruling was yes. Violations were punishable by fines not exceeding $500.00 or imprisonment no longer than sixty days, or both. Case Name: Engel v. Vitale Year: April 3, 1962- June 25, 1962Constitutional Issue:-The parents of ten students in New York schools challenged the constitutionality of a New York state law requiring public schools to begin each day with a state authorized prayer drafted by the State Board of Regents.-Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment of any law "respecting an establishment of religion," These parents argued that state-sponsored prayers in public schools violate the Establishment Clause. -The issue was whether state legislation can require principals, teachers and students to begin the day with prayers that are sponsored and written by the state.-In a 6-1 decision, the court finally agreed that school officials may not require devotional religious exercises during the school day, as this practice unconstitutionally entangles the state in religious activities and establishes religion.
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